Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Problem of evil


The synchronization of two pendulum clocks hanging from a wall was first observed by Huygens during the XVII century. This type of synchronization is observed in other areas, and is fundamentally different from the problem of two clocks hanging from a moveable base. We present a model explaining the phase opposition synchronization of two pendulum clocks in those conditions. The predicted behaviour is observed experimentally, validating the model.

Concepts: Scientific method, Hypothesis, Das Model, Base, Problem of evil, Pendulum clock, Christiaan Huygens


Despite the problem of inadequate recruitment to randomised trials, there is little evidence to guide researchers on decisions about how people are effectively recruited to take part in trials. The PRioRiTy study aimed to identify and prioritise important unanswered trial recruitment questions for research. The PRioRiTy study - Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) included members of the public approached to take part in a randomised trial or who have represented participants on randomised trial steering committees, health professionals and research staff with experience of recruiting to randomised trials, people who have designed, conducted, analysed or reported on randomised trials and people with experience of randomised trials methodology.

Concepts: Nutrition, Randomized controlled trial, Research, The Trial, Identification, Recruitment, Problem of evil, James Lind


This study informs efforts to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical datasets by providing a preliminary estimate of the number and type of datasets generated annually by research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). It focuses on those datasets that are “invisible” or not deposited in a known repository.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Mathematics, Learning, National Institutes of Health, Problem of evil


Gowers gave migraine a place in the borderland of epilepsy, justified by many relations and the fact that distinction of these two diseases is difficult. Gowers based his ideas on clinical histories from his patients, and he concluded that in extremely rare instances one may develop while the other goes on. In modern times, patient testimonies of the problem of differentiating migraine from epilepsy are given in health-chat Websites. It shows clearly that distinction between the two conditions is still problematic and that migralepsy is either nonexisting or extremely rare as Gowers noticed.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Avicenna, History, Problem of evil, David Cayley



Polymorphic human Alu elements are excellent tools for assessing population structure, and new retrotransposition events can contribute to disease. Next-generation sequencing has greatly increased the potential to discover Alu elements in human populations, and various sequencing and bioinformatics methods have been designed to tackle the problem of detecting these highly repetitive elements. However, current techniques for Alu discovery may miss rare, polymorphic Alu elements. Combining multiple discovery approaches may provide a better profile of the polymorphic Alu mobilome. AluYb8/9 elements have been a focus of our recent studies as they are young subfamilies (~2.3 million years old) that contribute ~30% of recent polymorphic Alu retrotransposition events. Here, we update our ME-Scan methods for detecting Alu elements and apply these methods to discover new insertions in a large set of individuals with diverse ancestral backgrounds.

Concepts: Evolution, Biology, Demography, Population, Focus, World population, Problem of evil


The research field of dynamic functional connectivity explores the temporal properties of brain connectivity. To date, many methods have been proposed, which are based on quite different assumptions. In order to understand in which way the results from different techniques can be compared to each other, it is useful to be able to formulate them within a common theoretical framework. In this study, we describe such a framework that is suitable for many of the dynamic functional connectivity methods that have been proposed. Our overall intention was to derive a theoretical framework that was constructed such that a wide variety of dynamic functional connectivity techniques could be expressed and evaluated within the same framework. At the same time, care was given to the fact that key features of each technique could be easily illustrated within the framework and thus highlighting critical assumptions that are made. We aimed to create a common framework which should serve to assist comparisons between different analytical methods for dynamic functional brain connectivity and promote an understanding of their methodological advantages as well as potential drawbacks.

Concepts: Scientific method, Understanding, Truth, Creativity techniques, Problem of evil


Recent advances in military-funded neurotechnology and novel opportunities for misusing neurodevices show that the problem of dual use is inherent to neuroscience. This paper discusses how the neuroscience community should respond to these dilemmas and delineates a neuroscience-specific biosecurity framework. This neurosecurity framework involves calibrated regulation, (neuro)ethical guidelines, and awareness-raising activities within the scientific community.

Concepts: Scientific method, Regulation, Social sciences, Problem of evil, Neuroethics, Dual-use technology


Transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation in small surgical tissue valves is challenged by the problem of residual stenosis. We report our first ten cases of fracturing small dysfunctional Mitroflow bioprostheses by high-pressure balloon dilatation to increase the internal diameter of the surgical valve before VIV (BF-VIV).

Concepts: Valve, Valve Corporation, Problem of evil


The implementation of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) is a promising strategy to help address the problem of antimicrobial resistance.

Concepts: Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Problem of evil