SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Prevention

272

To determine whether parachutes are effective in preventing major trauma related to gravitational challenge.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Prevention

254

As practicing pediatricians who have lost patients to gun violence, we join our colleagues in mourning the 20 children and their teachers who were killed in Newtown, Connecticut, on December 14, 2012. Our sadness is deepened by our knowledge that the deaths, terror, and post-traumatic stress of the relatives and friends left behind could have been prevented. Prevention is the core of pediatric work. We aim to protect children from all things that can harm them. Injuries are the biggest threat to U.S. children over 1 year of age. In 2010, gun-related injuries accounted for 6570 deaths of children and . . .

Concepts: Physician, English-language films, Prevention, Pediatrics, The Core, Terrorism, Disaster film, Mourning

226

Secondary prevention after stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) has focused on high early risk of recurrence, but survivors of stroke can have substantial long-term morbidity and mortality. We quantified long-term morbidity and mortality for patients who had no early complications after stroke or TIA and community-based controls.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Stroke, Transient ischemic attack, Prevention, High school

224

 To assess diagnostic accuracy of screening tests for pre-diabetes and efficacy of interventions (lifestyle or metformin) in preventing onset of type 2 diabetes in people with pre-diabetes.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Evaluation, Obesity, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Sulfonylurea, Prevention

171

BACKGROUND: Nearly one in five 4-year-old children in the United States are obese, with low-income children almost twice as likely to be obese as their middle/upper-income peers. Few obesity prevention programs for low-income preschoolers and their parents have been rigorously tested, and effects are modest. We are testing a novel obesity prevention program for low-income preschoolers built on the premise that children who are better able to self-regulate in the face of psychosocial stressors may be less likely to eat impulsively in response to stress. Enhancing behavioral self-regulation skills in low-income children may be a unique and important intervention approach to prevent childhood obesity.Methods/designThe Growing Healthy study is a randomized controlled trial evaluating two obesity prevention interventions in 600 low-income preschoolers attending Head Start, a federally-funded preschool program for low-income children. Interventions are delivered by community-based, nutrition-education staff partnering with Head Start. The first intervention (n = 200), Preschool Obesity Prevention Series (POPS), addresses evidence-based obesity prevention behaviors for preschool-aged children and their parents. The second intervention (n = 200) comprises POPS in combination with the Incredible Years Series (IYS), an evidence-based approach to improving self-regulation among preschool-aged children. The comparison condition (n = 200) is Usual Head Start Exposure. We hypothesize that POPS will yield positive effects compared to Usual Head Start, and that the combined intervention (POPS + IYS) addressing behaviors well-known to be associated with obesity risk, as well as self-regulatory capacity, will be most effective in preventing excessive increases in child adiposity indices (body mass index, skinfold thickness). We will evaluate additional child outcomes using parent and teacher reports and direct assessments of food-related self-regulation. We will also gather process data on intervention implementation, including fidelity, attendance, engagement, and satisfaction. DISCUSSION: The Growing Healthy study will shed light on associations between self-regulation skills and obesity risk in low-income preschoolers. If the project is effective in preventing obesity, results can also provide critical insights into how best to deliver obesity prevention programming to parents and children in a community-based setting like Head Start in order to promote better health among at-risk children.Trial registration numberClinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01398358.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Adipose tissue, Body mass index, Body fat percentage, Prevention, Early childhood education

167

The most compelling reason and primary goal of treating actinic keratoses is to prevent malignant transformation into invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and although there are well established guidelines outlining treatment modalities and regimens for squamous cell carcinoma, the more commonly encountered precancerous actinic lesions have no such standard. Many options are available with variable success and patient compliance rates. Prevention of these lesions is key, with sun protection being a must in treating aging patients with sun damage as it is never too late to begin protecting the skin.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Anatomical pathology, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Prevention, Skin cancer, Actinic keratosis

164

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, difficult to diagnose genetic disorder of bile acid (BA) synthesis that can cause progressive neurological damage and premature death. Detection of CTX in the newborn period would be beneficial since an effective oral therapy for CTX is available to prevent disease progression. There is no suitable test to screen newborn dried bloodspots (DBS) for CTX. Blood screening for CTX is currently performed by GC-MS measurement of elevated 5α-cholestanol. We present here LC-ESI/MS/MS methodology utilizing keto derivatization with (O-(3-trimethylammonium-propyl) hydroxylamine) reagent to enable sensitive detection of ketosterol BA precursors that accumulate in CTX. The availability of isotopically enriched derivatization reagent allowed ready tagging of ketosterols to generate internal standards for isotope dilution quantification. Ketosterols were quantified and their utility as markers for CTX compared to 5α-cholestanol. 7α12α-Dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one provided the best discrimination between CTX and unaffected samples. In two CTX newborn DBS concentrations of this ketosterol (120-214 ng/ml) were around 10-fold higher than in unaffected newborn DBS (16.4±6.0 ng/ml), such that its quantification provides a test with potential to screen newborn DBS for CTX. Early detection and intervention through newborn screening would greatly benefit those affected with CTX, preventing morbidity and mortality.

Concepts: Infant, Cancer, Disease, Death, Prevention, Quantification, Newborn screening, Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis

156

127

Aspirin therapy has been shown to be an effective prevention measure to reduce the risk of new or recurring cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to provide an epidemiological analysis of low-dose aspirin use for primary and secondary CVD prevention from 2012 to 2015. Estimates of self-reported low-dose aspirin use for primary and secondary CVD prevention were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey for the years 2012-2015. Temporal changes in the prevalence of aspirin use for primary and secondary CVD prevention were assessed using logistic regression. During 2012-2015, 23.3% of respondents self-reported as taking aspirin for primary CVD prevention, decreasing from 23.7% in 2012 to 21.8% in 2015. Also during this period, 8.4% self-reported as taking aspirin for secondary CVD prevention, decreasing from 8.9% in 2012 to 8.2% in 2015. Overall, the prevalence of aspirin use for CVD prevention declined from 32.6% in 2012 to 30.0% in 2015. This study shows that over 30% of the adult population self-reports as taking low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary CVD prevention. Despite the decline in this prevalence over the previous four years, aspirin therapy remains a highly-utilized means of preventing CVD.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Disease, Myocardial infarction, Cardiovascular disease, United States, Prevention, Preventive medicine

97

The ideal cardiovascular health score (ICHS) is recommended for use in primary prevention. Simpler tools not requiring laboratory tests, such as the Fuster-BEWAT (blood pressure [B], exercise [E], weight [W], alimentation [A], and tobacco [T]) score (FBS), are also available.

Concepts: Public health, Blood, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Artery, Experiment, Prevention, Primary ideal