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Concept: Preservation


Fossil feathers often preserve evidence of melanosomes-micrometre-scale melanin-bearing organelles that have been used to infer original colours and patterns of the plumage of dinosaurs. Such reconstructions acknowledge that evidence from other colour-producing mechanisms is presently elusive and assume that melanosome geometry is not altered during fossilization. Here, we provide the first test of this assumption, using high pressure-high temperature autoclave experiments on modern feathers to simulate the effects of burial on feather colour. Our experiments show that melanosomes are retained despite loss of visual evidence of colour and complete degradation of other colour-producing structures (e.g. quasi-ordered arrays in barbs and the keratin cortex in barbules). Significantly, however, melanosome geometry and spatial distribution are altered by the effects of pressure and temperature. These results demonstrate that reconstructions of original plumage coloration in fossils where preserved features of melanosomes are affected by diagenesis should be treated with caution. Reconstructions of fossil feather colour require assessment of the extent of preservation of various colour-producing mechanisms, and, critically, the extent of alteration of melanosome geometry.

Concepts: Color, Fossil, Paleontology, Preservation, Dinosaur, Feather, Diagenesis


Privacy is commonly regarded as a regulatory requirement achieved via technical and organizational management practices. Those working in the field of informatics often play a role in privacy preservation as a result of their expertise in information technology, workflow analysis, implementation science, or related skills. Viewing privacy from the perspective of patients whose protected health information is at risk broadens the considerations to include the perceived duality of privacy; the existence of privacy within a context unique to each patient; the competing needs inherent within privacy management; the need for particular consideration when data are shared; and the need for patients to control health information in a global setting. With precision medicine, artificial intelligence, and other treatment innovations on the horizon, health care professionals need to think more broadly about how to preserve privacy in a health care environment driven by data sharing. Patient-reported privacy preferences, privacy portability, and greater transparency around privacy-preserving functionalities are potential strategies for ensuring that privacy regulations are met and privacy is preserved.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Patient, Illness, Management, Regulation, Protection, Preservation


Palaeodemographic studies of animals using frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates are increasingly used in studies of Quaternary extinction but are complicated by taphonomic bias, or the loss of material through time. Current taphonomic models are based on the temporal frequency distributions of sediments, but bone is potentially lost at greater rates because not all sedimentary contexts preserve bone. We test the hypotheses that (i) the loss of bone over time is greater than that of sediment and (ii) this rate of loss varies geographically at large scales. We compiled radiocarbon dates on Pleistocene-aged bone from eastern Beringia (EB), the contiguous United States (CUSA) and South America (SA), from which we developed models of taphonomic loss. We find that bone is lost at greater rates than terrestrial sediment in general, but only for CUSA and SA. Bone in EB is lost at approximately the same rate as terrestrial sediments, which demonstrates the excellent preservation environments of arctic regions, presumably due to preservative effects of permafrost. These differences between bone and sediment preservation as well as between arctic and non-arctic regions should be taken into account by any research addressing past faunal population dynamics based on temporal frequency distributions.

Concepts: Time, United States, Sediment, Sedimentary rock, Erosion, Frequency, Fossil, Preservation


Measurements of historical specimens are widely applied in studies of taxonomy, systematics, and ecology, but biologists often assume that the effects of preservative chemicals on the morphology of amphibian specimens are minimal in their analyses. We compared the body length and body mass of 182 samples of 13 live and preserved (up to 10 years) anuran species and found that the body length and body mass of preserved specimens significantly decreased by 6.1% and 24.8%, respectively, compared to those measurements of their live counterparts. The changes in body length and mass also exhibited highly significant variations between species. Similarly, there were significant differences in shrinkage of body length and body mass between sexes, where males showed greater shrinkage in body length and body mass compared to females. Preservation distorted the magnitude of the interspecific differences in body length observed in the fresh specimens. Overall, the reduction in body length or mass was greater in longer or heavier individuals. Due to the effects of preservation on amphibian morphology, we propose two parsimonious conversion equations to back-calculate the original body length and body mass of studied anurans for researchers working with historical data, since morphological data from preserved specimens may lead to incorrect biological interpretations when comparing to fresh specimens. Therefore, researchers should correct for errors due to preservation effects that may lead to the misinterpretation of results.

Concepts: Biology, Species, Sex, Amphibian, Frog, Preservation


In a recent study, we demonstrated that sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories is preserved in older adults. The present study examined whether this benefit of sleep for declarative learning in older adults reflects a passive role of sleep in protecting memories from decay or an active role in stabilizing them. Young and older adults learned a visuospatial task, and recall was probed after sleep or wake. Although a reduction in performance was observed after sleep and wake, task-related interference before recall had a larger detriment on performance in the wake condition. This was true for young and high performing older adults only. Low performing older adults did not receive a benefit of sleep on the visuospatial task. Performance changes were associated with early night nonrapid eye movement sleep in young adults and with early night rapid eye movement sleep in high performing older adults. These results demonstrate that performance benefits from sleep in older adults as a result of an active memory stabilization process; importantly, the extent of this benefit of sleep is closely linked to the level of initial acquisition of the episodic information in older adults.

Concepts: Sleep, Memory, Hippocampus, Learning, Protection, Rapid eye movement sleep, Declarative memory, Preservation


Diffuse activation of interleukin-1 inflammatory cytokine signaling after traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits progressive neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and thus represents a potential opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1β both activate the common type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI), they manifest distinct injury-specific roles in some models of neurodegeneration. Despite its potential relevance to treating patients with TBI, however, the individual contributions of IL-1α and IL-1β to TBI-pathology have not been previously investigated. To address this need, we applied genetic and pharmacologic approaches in mice to dissect the individual contributions of IL-1α, IL-β, and IL-1RI signaling to the pathophysiology of fluid percussion-mediated TBI, a model of mixed focal and diffuse TBI. IL-1RI ablation conferred a greater protective effect on brain cytokine expression and cognitive function after TBI than did individual IL-1α or IL-1β ablation. This protective effect was recapitulated by treatment with the drug anakinra, a recombinant naturally occurring IL-1RI antagonist. Our data thus suggest that broad targeting of IL-1RI signaling is more likely to reduce neuroinflammation and preserve cognitive function after TBI than are approaches that individually target IL-1α or IL-1β signaling.

Concepts: Psychology, Brain, Traumatic brain injury, Cognition, Mind, Protection, Preservation, Preserve


To demonstrate a novel frozen section analysis technique during robot assisted radical prostatectomy with 2 distinct advantages: evaluation of the entire circumference and easier reconstruction for whole mount evaluation.

Concepts: Urology, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Surgical oncology, Preservation, Ulysses S. Grant


Most of aquatic products are highly susceptible to deterioration and microbial spoilage during storage. A frequently used method to preserve them is achieved by cold storage. However, products preserved by traditional frozen method are prone to suffer undesired frozen damage. It will significantly impair postmortem quality of the products. To solve the problem, this work established a novel superchilling storage-ice glazing (SS-IG) approach using chitosan-catechin composite material. It can maximize the postmortem quality of preserved products during storage with avoiding the frozen damage.

Concepts: Microbiology, Water, Composite material, Microorganism, Problem solving, Preservation, Preserve, Pykrete


Robust and effective shape prior modeling from a set of training data remains a challenging task, since the shape variation is complicated, and shape models should preserve local details as well as handle shape noises. To address these challenges, a novel robust projective dictionary learning (RPDL) scheme is proposed in this paper. Specifically, the RPDL method integrates the dimension reduction and dictionary learning into a unified framework for shape prior modeling, which can not only learn a robust and representative dictionary with the energy preservation of the training data, but also reduce the dimensionality and computational cost via the subspace learning. In addition, the proposed RPDL algorithm is regularized by using the norm to handle the outliers and noises, and is embedded in an online framework so that of memory and time efficiency. The proposed method is employed to model prostate shape prior for the application of magnetic resonance transrectal ultrasound registration. The experimental results demonstrate that our method provides more accurate and robust shape modeling than the state-of-the-art methods do. The proposed RPDL method is applicable for modeling other organs, and hence, a general solution for the problem of shape prior modeling.

Concepts: Prostate cancer, Dimension, Data analysis, Model, Machine learning, Transrectal ultrasonography, Robust statistics, Preservation


The simultaneous removal of noise and preservation of the integrity of 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images is a difficult and important task. In this paper, we consider characterizing MR images with 3-D operators, and present a novel 4-D transform-domain method termed ‘modified nonlocal tensor-SVD (MNL-tSVD)’ for MR image denoising. The proposed method is based on the grouping, hard-thresholding and aggregation paradigms, and can be viewed as a generalized nonlocal extension of tensor-SVD (t-SVD). By keeping MR images in its natural three-dimensional form, and collaboratively filtering similar patches, MNL-tSVD utilizes both the self-similarity property and 3-D structure of MR images to preserve more actual details and minimize the introduction of new artifacts. We show the adaptability of MNL-tSVD by incorporating it into a two-stage denoising strategy with a few adjustments. In addition, analysis of the relationship between MNL-tSVD and current the state-of-the-art 4-D transforms is given. Experimental comparisons over simulated and real brain data sets at different Rician noise levels show that MNL-tSVD can produce competitive performance compared with related approaches.

Concepts: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Human brain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Filter, Filters, Preservation