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Concept: Premolar


Skulls (n = 1,205) of southern sea otters were examined macroscopically according to defined criteria. The museum specimens, acquired from strandings, varied in age from juvenile to adult, with an equal sex distribution. The results from all young adult and adult specimens were pooled according to tooth type. Ninety-two percent of teeth were available for examination, with 6.5% artifactually absent, 0.6% deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 0.03% deemed congenitally absent. All teeth were normal in morphology, except for three pairs of fused teeth, including two instances of fused maxillary first incisor teeth. Supernumerary teeth were associated with 97 normal teeth (most commonly maxillary canine teeth) in 68 specimens. At least one persistent deciduous tooth was present in six skulls, two of which were from adults. The majority (94.6%) of alveoli, either with or without teeth, were not associated with bony changes consistent with periodontitis; however, the majority (74.4%) of specimens did have at least one tooth associated with mild periodontitis. The mesial root of the mandibular third premolar tooth was the most common location at which periodontal hard tissue lesions were observed (56.6%). Ten sea otters had lesions consistent with focal enamel hypoplasia. Approximately half of the teeth (52.0%) were abraded; almost all adult specimens (98.1%) contained at least one abraded tooth, while fewer young adults were affected (76.4%). Tooth fractures were uncommon, affecting 1,343 teeth (4.5%). Periapical lesions were associated with 409 teeth (1.3%) in a total of 176 specimens, and these would likely have caused considerable morbidity while the animals were alive.

Concepts: Teeth, Tooth development, Incisor, Canine tooth, Maxillary lateral incisor, Premolar, Sea otter, Deciduous teeth


BACKGROUND: Tooth autotransplantation has developed into a safe and predictable procedure, which preserves the continuity of the dental arch and the alveolar process and provides an acceptable aesthetic and physiological outcome. AIM: To describe our experience with autotransplantation of the developing mandibular premolar to the iliac crest grafted alveolar cleft as part of the cleft patient’s treatment protocol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four cleft affected patients were referred to the Orthodontic and Craniofacial Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel due to loss of teeth in the cleft area. In all cases, orthodontic closure of the missing teeth space in the maxillary dental arch was considered inappropriate and therefore autotransplantation of the extracted mandibular premolar to the bone-grafted alveolar cleft site was conducted. RESULTS: None of the transplanted teeth in the reported cleft affected patients had signs or symptoms of progressive root pathology, gingival disease or advanced tooth mobility. Long-term clinical follow-up examination revealed improved facial aesthetics and occlusal relationships along with increased self-esteem and welfare of the patients' with no need for future dental restorative treatment. CONCLUSION: Autotransplantation of mandibular premolars should be considered an alternative to prosthodontics in cleft affected patients as an integral part of the cleft patient’s treatment protocol.

Concepts: Health care provider, Pelvis, Teeth, Oral hygiene, Canine tooth, Premolar, Mandibular second premolar, Maxillary first premolar


SUMMARY Aim: To determine the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of four different types of composite resin and to evaluate microleakage of these materials in class II (MOD) cavities with and without a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) liner, in vitro. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight extracted human upper premolar teeth were used. After the teeth were divided into eight groups (n=16), standardized MOD cavities were prepared. Then the teeth were restored with different resin composites (Filtek Supreme XT, Filtek P 60, Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z 250) with and without a RMGIC liner (Vitrebond). The restorations were finished and polished after 24 hours. Following thermocycling, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, then midsagitally sectioned in a mesiodistal plane and examined for microleakage using a stereomicroscope. The volumetric polymerization shrinkage of materials was measured using a video imaging device (Acuvol, Bisco, Inc). Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: All teeth showed microleakage, but placement of RMGIC liner reduced microleakage. No statistically significant differences were found in microleakage between the teeth restored without RMGIC liner (p>0.05). Filtek Silorane showed significantly less volumetric polymerization shrinkage than the methacrylate-based composite resins (p<0.05). Conclusion: The use of RMGIC liner with both silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resin restorations resulted in reduced microleakage. The volumetric polymerization shrinkage was least with the silorane-based composite.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Composite material, Teeth, Premolar, Dental composite, Glass ionomer cement, Resin


A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of four distinct root canals and four apical foramina is described. This occurrence in mandibular first premolar has rarely been reported in the endodontic literature. Endodontic treatment that considers the anatomic variation of root canal morphology is important to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal. This offers valuable adjuncts for the successful negotiation of calcified main canals, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system.

Concepts: Anatomy, Root canal, Endodontic therapy, Endodontics, Dentistry, Premolar, Mandibular second premolar, Mandibular first premolar


OBJECTIVE: Determine the differences in skeletal and dental maxillary expansion as evidenced by the degree of dental tipping and if this is symmetrical or not. METHODS: Sixty-two patients who were diagnosed as requiring maxillary expansion treatment were recruited over an 18-month period. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups where a total of three to four cone-beam computerized tomographies (CBCT) were obtained throughout a one-year period depending on the group allocated. Landmarks used were from the first and second molars and premolars of the maxilla. For each of the eight teeth, three landmarks were identified: the root apex, alveolar bone and pulp chamber. Statistical analysis consisted in the use of MANOVA and after significant overall effects were detected, the univariate repeated measures results were analyzed along with separate ANOVA for each variable at each of the four time points. RESULTS: There was strong overall significance for time, group, and time*group. The first and second molars saw both bone- and tooth-anchored treatment groups with significantly different dental inclination than the control group. For the second premolars, only the tooth-anchored group was significantly different from control. The tooth-anchored group was also significantly different than the control group in the first premolar measurements. For the analysis of asymmetry in dental inclination, no significant time, group, or time*group effects were seen overall. CONCLUSION: The analysis provided evidence that dental tipping does occur in the molars for both RME treatments, while the premolars showed increased tipping in the tooth-anchored, but not the bone-anchored group.

Concepts: Scientific method, Symmetry, Teeth, Analysis of variance, Incisor, Canine tooth, Premolar, Maxillary first premolar


A 13-year-old girl came with the chief complaint of an unesthetic dental appearance. Her maxillary canines were bilaterally impacted. Treatment included extraction of the maxillary canines and the mandibular second premolars. The maxillary first premolars were substituted for the canines. After 26 months of active treatment, the patient had a Class I molar relationship and ideal overbite and overjet. Her profile was improved, lips were competent, and gingival levels were acceptable. Cephalometric evaluation showed acceptable maxillary and mandibular incisor inclinations. Intraoral pictures taken 3 years 7 months after the end of treatment demonstrated that the extraction of impacted canines and their substitution by first premolars can be a valid alternative to traditional orthodontic treatment when maxillary premolar extraction is a treatment option.

Concepts: Teeth, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Incisor, Canine tooth, Premolar, Maxillary first premolar


Extant rhinos are the largest extant herbivores exhibiting dietary specialisations for both browse and grass. However, the adaptive value of the wear-induced tooth morphology in rhinos has not been widely studied, and data on individual cusp and tooth positions have rarely been published. We evaluated upper cheek dentition of browsing Diceros bicornis and Rhinoceros sondaicus, mixed-feeding R. unicornis and grazing Ceratotherium simum using an extended mesowear method adapted for rhinos. We included single cusp scoring (EM®-S) to investigate inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns. In accordance with previous reports, general mesowear patterns in D. bicornis and R. sondaicus were attrition-dominated and C. simum abrasion-dominated, reflecting their respective diets. Mesowear patterns for R. unicornis were more attrition-dominated than anticipated by the grass-dominated diet, which may indicate a low intake of environmental abrasives. EM®-S increased differentiation power compared to classical mesowear, with significant inter-cusp and inter-tooth differences detected. In D. bicornis, the anterior cusp was consistently more abrasion-dominated than the posterior. Wear differences in cusp position may relate to morphological adaptations to dietary regimes. Heterogeneous occlusal surfaces may facilitate the comminution of heterogeneous browse, whereas uniform, broad grinding surfaces may enhance the comminution of physically more homogeneous grass. A negative tooth wear gradient was found in D. bicornis, R. sondaicus and R. unicornis, with wear patterns becoming less abrasion-dominated from premolars to molars. No such gradients were evident in C. simum which displayed a uniform wear pattern. In browsers, premolars may be exposed to higher relative grit loads, which may result in the development of wear gradients. The second premolar may also have a role in food cropping. In grazers, high absolute amounts of ingested abrasives may override other signals, leading to a uniform wear pattern and dental function along the tooth row, which could relate to the observed evolution towards homodonty.

Concepts: Teeth, Grazing, Rhinoceros, Canine tooth, Premolar, White Rhinoceros, Black Rhinoceros, International Rhino Foundation


The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods.

Concepts: Premolar, Inferior alveolar nerve, Mandibular canal


The aim of this study was to evaluate the stresses within simulated roots with internal resorption cavities at the apical, middle and coronal root levels, after obturation with gutta-percha and/or MTA utilising finite element analysis (FEA). Mandibular premolar teeth with internal resorption cavities at different root levels were modelled. Models were restored with gutta-percha and/or MTA. An oblique force of 300 N was applied and stress evaluations were carried out. In the MTA-filled resorption models, the stresses were distributed more homogeneously than the gutta-percha filled models, and the stress concentrations were lower in the remaining dentinal tissues. If the whole root is considered, the fully gutta-percha-filled models generated the highest stress values. Differences between the fully MTA-filled models and hybrid techniques were present only in the apical resorption models. Both the MTA and combination of MTA and gutta-percha can be suggested for use in clinical practice, in cases of internal root resorption cavity obturation.

Concepts: Finite element method, Hilbert space, Distribution, Root, Teeth, Partial differential equation, Premolar


In order to investigate the influence of cusp reduction, cavity isthmus width, and restorative material on stress values in premolar with mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity, numerical simulations were done on three-dimensional (3D) models of a maxillary second premolar designed using computerized tomography (CT) scan images. The use of four restorative materials (direct resin composite, direct resin composite with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement as the base, indirect resin composite, ceramic), three cavity preparation designs (without cusp coverage, 2-mm palatal cusp coverage, 2-mm palatal and buccal cusp coverage), and two cavity isthmus widths (½ and 2/3 intercuspal width) were simulated. After applying a static load of 200 N on the occlusal surface of the tooth, von Mises stresses in the enamel, dentin, and restoration were calculated using finite element analysis (FEA). Stress values in the enamel were primarily influenced by cavity preparation design, while restorative material showed higher contribution in dentin. The lowest stress values were obtained in models with cusp coverage and indirect restorations. Cavity isthmus width had minimal influence on stress values in tooth structures. None of the investigated factors determined stress values in the restoration. In conclusion, the use of ceramic restoration covering both palatal and buccal cusp provided the most favourable stress distribution of premolars with MOD cavity. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

Concepts: Finite element method, Teeth, Premolar, Maxillary first premolar