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Concept: Premenstrual syndrome


Yoga classes designed for women with premenstrual syndrome are available, but their efficacy is unclear. We investigated the effects of 12 weeks' yoga exercise (yoga intervention) on premenstrual symptoms in menstruating females in Taiwan. Sixty-four subjects completed the yoga intervention, and before and after the intervention filled out a structured self-report questionnaire about their demographics, personal lifestyle, menstrual status, baseline menstrual pain scores, premenstrual symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Of 64 subjects, 90.6% reported experiencing menstrual pain during menstruation. After the yoga intervention, subjects reported decreased use of analgesics during menstruation (p = 0.0290) and decreased moderate or severe effects of menstrual pain on work (p = 0.0011). The yoga exercise intervention was associated with the improvement of the scale of physical function (p = 0.0340) and bodily pain (p = 0.0087) of the SF-36, and significantly decreased abdominal swelling (p = 0.0011), breast tenderness (p = 0.0348), abdominal cramps (p = 0.0016), and cold sweats (p = 0.0143). Menstrual pain mitigation after yoga exercise correlated with improvement in six scales of the SF-36 (physical function, bodily pain, general health perception, vitality/energy, social function, mental health). Employers can educate female employees about the benefits of regular exercise such as yoga, which may decrease premenstrual distress and improve female employee health.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Exercise, Pain, Menstrual cycle, Employment, Menstruation, Menorrhagia, Premenstrual syndrome


[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effects of taping and hot packs on premenstrual syndrome, in an attempt to generate basic data for physical therapy intervention for premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two females in their 20s with premenstrual syndrome were randomly assigned to a taping group (n=10), hot pack group (n=11), and taping with hot pack group (n=11). Premenstrual syndrome was assessed using the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire in each participant prior to intervention and was re-assessed after applying kinesio taping and/or hot pack from 10 days before the estimated date of menstruation until the first day of menstruation. [Results] Data revealed that the taping and taping with hot pack groups showed significantly reduced premenstrual syndrome following intervention. In terms of the differences in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire total score among the groups, the taping with hot pack and hot pack groups showed a significant difference. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that kinesio taping is an easy, non-drug intervention for female college students with premenstrual syndrome.

Concepts: Menstrual cycle, Premenstrual syndrome, Pack


Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a very common disorder worldwide which carries an important economic burden. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to assess the role of alcohol in the occurrence of PMS.

Concepts: Systematic review, Syndromes, Meta-analysis, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome, Seventh-day Adventist Church


The prevalence of hypertension is increasing among younger women, and new strategies are needed to identify high-risk women who should be targets for early intervention. Several mechanisms underlying hypertension might also contribute to premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but whether women with PMS have a higher risk of subsequently developing hypertension has not been assessed. We prospectively evaluated this possibility in a substudy of the Nurses' Health Study II. Participants were 1,257 women with clinically significant PMS (1991-2005) and 2,463 age-matched comparison women with few menstrual symptoms. Participants were followed for incident hypertension until 2011. Over 6-20 years, hypertension was reported by 342 women with PMS and 541 women without. After adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, and other risk factors for hypertension, women with PMS had a hazard ratio for hypertension of 1.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.6) compared with women without PMS. Risk was highest for hypertension that occurred before 40 years of age (hazard ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 6.5; P for interaction = 0.0002). The risk associated with PMS was not modified by use of oral contraceptives or antidepressants but was attenuated among women with high intakes of thiamine and riboflavin (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PMS might be associated with future development of hypertension and that this risk may be modifiable.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Risk, Body mass index, Syndromes, Menstrual cycle, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome


ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: The prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) among Jordanian women were 80.2% and 10.2% respectively; which is higher than most published literature. The most severe symptoms of PMS and PMDD were abdominal cramp, lower back pain and breast pain. Taking analgesics was the most frequently used method to alleviate the symptoms of PMS and PMDD. High stress levels affected the symptoms of PMS and PMDD negatively; therefore, controlling stress level will reduce the severity of symptoms. The objectives of this study were to detect the prevalence, severity and factors associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) among Jordanian women, and to identify the most common self-treatment strategies used by women to alleviate the symptoms associated with PMS and/or PMDD. Data were collected from 254 women studying or working at one of the largest Jordanian governmental university using Shortened Premenstrual Assessment Form (SPAF), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) research criteria for diagnosis of PMDD. The findings indicated that the prevalence of PMS and PMDD were 80.2%, 10.2% respectively. Abdominal cramp, lower back pain and breast pain were reported to be the most severe symptoms associated with PMS and PMDD. Significant correlations were found between severity of premenstrual symptoms and perceived stress level, age, body mass index, marital status, perception of health in general and absent from work. The most frequently reported self-treatment strategies used by women to alleviate PMS and PMDD symptoms were: taking analgesics, increasing hot fluids intake, wearing heavy and warm clothes, and lying down on the abdomen. Understanding the prevalence, severity and self-treatment strategies for women experiencing PMS and PMDD symptoms help in improving women’s quality of life and decrease their suffering from these symptoms.

Concepts: Symptoms, Body mass index, Abdominal pain, Syndromes, Pain, Mental disorder, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome


Menstruation is the genital sign of systemic endocrine events. Heterogeneity of perimenstrual symptoms is associated with levels of inflammation, triggered by the fall of estrogens at genital and systemic level. Aim of the review is to concisely analyze the evidence on: 1) genital and systemic endocrine and inflammatory events associated with periods and perimenstrual symptoms; 2) rationale of intervention to reduce their intensity and impact on women’s lives. This review of the literature, selected with a clinical perspective, supports the inflammatory basis of the menstrual event, triggered by the estrogens' and progesterone' fall. Moreover, the review analyzes the endocrine and inflammatory basis of perimenstrual pelvic and extrapelvic symptoms such as: menstrual pain, menstrual irregularities, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, catamenial headache, depression, perimenstrual myalgia, joint pain, allergies and asthma, heavy menstrual bleeding, associated ironless anemia, brain and behavioral consequences. Inflammation, with increase of cytokines and other markers, is modulated by the degranulation of mast cells at the basal level of the endometrium, in the blood, in all the organs where mast-cell are already activated from local pathologies and within the brain. The shift of inflammation from physiological to a pathologic intensity increases the severity of perimenstrual symptoms. Symptoms persist, moderately attenuated, also during the hormone free interval (HFI) in contraception. The HFI reduction from seven to two days significantly reduces menstrual inflammation and associated symptoms.

Concepts: Immune system, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Endometrium, Progesterone, Menstruation, Premenstrual syndrome


Many women experience emotional and physical symptoms around the time of ovulation and more so before menstruation interfering with their daily normal life also known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Recent observational data suggest that supplementation with Lipogen’s phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidic acid (PA) complex (PAS) alleviates these PMS symptoms. The aim of this study was to confirm these observations on the effects of PAS on PMS symptom severity within a controlled clinical trial setting.

Concepts: Scientific method, Experimental design, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Menstrual cycle, Knowledge, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome


Background- Changes in neurosteroid levels during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle may precipitate affective symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we stabilized neurosteroid levels by administering the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride to block conversion of progesterone to its neurosteroid metabolite allopregnanolone in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and in asymptomatic control women. Methods- Sixteen women with prospectively confirmed PMDD and 16 control women participated in one of two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trials, each lasting three menstrual cycles. After one menstrual cycle of single-blind placebo, participants were randomized to receive, for the next two menstrual cycles, either double blind placebo or dutasteride (low-dose 0.5 mg/day in the first 8 PMDD and 8 control women or high-dose 2.5 mg/day in the second group of women). All women completed the Daily Rating Form (DRF) and were evaluated in clinic during the follicular and luteal phases of each menstrual cycle. Main outcome measures were the DRF symptoms of irritability, sadness, and anxiety. Analyses were performed with SAS PROC MIXED. Results- In the low-dose group, no significant effect of dutasteride on PMDD symptoms was observed compared with placebo (ie, symptom cyclicity maintained), and plasma allopregnanolone levels increased in women with PMDD from follicular to the luteal phases, suggesting the absence of effect of the low-dose dutasteride on 5α-reductase. In contrast, the high-dose group experienced a statistically significant reduction in several core PMDD symptoms (ie, irritability, sadness, anxiety, food cravings and bloating) on dutasteride compared with placebo. Dutasteride had no effect on mood in controls. Conclusions- Stabilization of allopregnanolone levels from the follicular to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle by blocking the conversion of progesterone to its 5α-reduced neurosteroid metabolite mitigates symptoms in PMDD. These data provide preliminary support for the pathophysiologic relevance of neurosteroids in this condition.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 14 August 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.246.

Concepts: Estrogen, Menstrual cycle, Gynecology, Endometrium, Corpus luteum, Progesterone, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome that involves a combination of emotional and physical symptoms that result in significant functional impairment. Because of the debilitating nature of PMDD, multiple treatment options have been considered. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these therapeutic regimens to help health care professionals provide adequate treatment for PMDD and premenstrual syndrome. The treatments that are reviewed are organized into the following categories: psychiatric, anovulatory, supplements, herbal, nonpharmacological, and other. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been established as the first-line treatment for PMDD. Although luteal phase or continuous dosing can be used, additional research is needed to more thoroughly compare the efficacies and differential symptom response of continuous, semi-intermittent, luteal phase, and symptoms-onset dosing. The psychiatric medications venlafaxine, duloxetine, alprazolam, and buspirone have also been found to be useful treatments for PMDD. Various anovulatory-related treatments have demonstrated efficacy; however, the use of some of these treatments remains limited due to potential side effects and/or the availability of cheaper alternatives. Although a variety of supplement and herbal-related treatments have been proposed, with some warranting further research, at this time only calcium supplementation has demonstrated a consistent therapeutic benefit. In conclusion, serotoninergic antidepressants have been established as the first-line treatment option for PMDD; however, there are a variety of additional treatment options that should be considered if a patient fails to achieve an adequate therapeutic response with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

Concepts: Antidepressant, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sertraline, Tricyclic antidepressant, Reuptake inhibitor, Fluoxetine, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome


Clinically significant premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects 15-20% of premenopausal women, substantially reducing quality of life. Women with PMS often are counseled to minimize caffeine intake, although only limited evidence supports this recommendation.

Concepts: Life, Coffee, Syndromes, Menstrual cycle, Caffeine, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome