SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Poverty threshold

0

We examined use of a farmers' market that leverages community partnerships to provide free produce to lower-income persons. Participants (n = 422) were asked to complete a questionnaire and given an ID number, which was used to track market use from 2014 to 2015. Chi square tests were used to examine associations between 2014/2015 market use and reasons for market use, financial support received, and how attendees had learned about the market. Ordinal regression was used to identify household characteristics associated with increased market attendance. Although the proportion of lower-income attendees declined over the study period, a substantial proportion of households in 2014 (69.1%) and 2015 (54.6%) were below the poverty threshold. We identified significant differences in attendees' reasons for market use and ways attendees heard about the market from 2014 to 2015. The most frequently reported reason for 2014 market use was retirement/fixed income (P < 0.001) and in 2015 was low-income (P < 0.001). Most attendees heard about the market through flyers (P < 0.001) and word of mouth (P ≤ 0.001) in 2014 and through local, non-profit services (P < 0.001) in 2015. In the ordinal regression, households with an older person registering the household for the market used the market more times per year (P < 0.001). Impoverished households (P = 0.020) and households receiving more financial support services (P < 0.001) used the market fewer times per year. While a substantial proportion of lower-income persons used the free-produce market, frequency of use was still lowest among this group indicating a need to address barriers beyond produce cost.

Concepts: Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Household, Chi-square test, Household income in the United States, Cycle of poverty, Reason, Poverty threshold

0

With rapid aging, many of the elderly suffer from poverty and high healthcare needs. In Korea, there is a means-tested and non-contributory public assistance, the National Basic Livelihood Security System (NBLSS). The purpose of this study is to show older population’s condition of disability and poverty, to evaluate the impact of NBLSS on health services utilization, and to examine the differential effect of the NBLSS by disability status among the elderly. This study used the Korea Welfare Panel Study data 2005-2014 with the final sample of 40,365, who were 65 years and older. The participants were divided into people with mild disability, severe disability, and without disability according to the Korean disability registration system. The income-level was defined to the low-income with NBLSS, the low-income without NBLSS, and the middle and high income, using the relative poverty line as a proxy of the low-income. The dependent variables were the number of outpatient visits and inpatient days, experience of home care services, total healthcare expenditure, and financial burden of healthcare expenditure. We performed Generalized Estimating Equations population-averaged model using the ten years of panel data. The result showed that within the same disability status, the low-income without NBLSS group used the least amount of inpatient care, but their financial burden of health expenditure was the highest among the three income groups. The regression model showed that if the elderly with severe disability were in the low-income without NBLSS, they reduced the outpatient and inpatient days; but their financial burden of healthcare became intensified. This study shows that the low-income elderly with disability but without adequate social protection are the most disadvantaged group. Policy is called for to mitigate the difficulties of this vulnerable population.

Concepts: Health care, Regression analysis, Health economics, Health insurance, Poverty, Poverty threshold, Poverty reduction, Panel data

0

Given the increasing interest in expanding obesity prevention efforts to cover community-based programs, we examined whether individuals would access a YMCA for physical activity promotion. We provided a no-cost 12-month YMCA membership to socioeconomically disadvantaged black women who were randomized to the intervention arm of a weight gain prevention trial (n = 91). Analyses examined associations of membership activation and use with baseline psychosocial, contextual, health-related, and sociodemographic factors. Many participants (70.3 %) activated their memberships; however, use was low (42.2 % had no subsequent visits, 46.9 % had one to ten visits). There were no predictors of membership activation, but individuals living below/borderline the federal poverty line were more likely to use the center (1+ visits), as were those who met physical activity guidelines at baseline. More comprehensive and intensive interventions may be necessary to promote use of community resources-even when provided free-among high-risk populations of women with obesity that live in rural areas of the USA.

Concepts: Poverty, Population, Black people, Poverty in the United States, Rural area, Malnutrition, Promotion, Poverty threshold

0

This study examines historical trends in poverty using an anchored version of the U.S. Census Bureau’s recently developed Research Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) estimated back to 1967. Although the SPM is estimated each year using a quasi-relative poverty threshold that varies over time with changes in families' expenditures on a core basket of goods and services, this study explores trends in poverty using an absolute, or anchored, SPM threshold. We believe the anchored measure offers two advantages. First, setting the threshold at the SPM’s 2012 levels and estimating it back to 1967, adjusted only for changes in prices, is more directly comparable to the approach taken in official poverty statistics. Second, it allows for a better accounting of the roles that social policy, the labor market, and changing demographics play in trends in poverty rates over time, given that changes in the threshold are held constant. Results indicate that unlike official statistics that have shown poverty rates to be fairly flat since the 1960s, poverty rates have dropped by 40 % when measured using a historical anchored SPM over the same period. Results obtained from comparing poverty rates using a pretax/pretransfer measure of resources versus a post-tax/post-transfer measure of resources further show that government policies, not market incomes, are driving the declines observed over time.

Concepts: Statistics, Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Policy, Poverty threshold, United States Census, United States Census Bureau, Census

0

Many low- and middle-income countries have introduced State-funded health programmes for vulnerable groups as part of global efforts to universalise health coverage. Similarly, India introduced the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in 2008, a publicly-funded national health insurance scheme for people below the poverty line. The authors explore the RSBY’s genesis and early development in order to understand its conceptualisation and design principles and thereby establish a baseline for assessing RSBY’s performance in the future.

Concepts: Health economics, Healthcare reform, Universal health care, Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Malnutrition, World Bank, Poverty threshold

0

India carries the greatest burden of global non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Poverty is strongly associated with NCDs but there are few prevalence studies which have measured poverty in India, particularly in rural settings.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Poverty, Rural area, India, Prevalence, Poverty threshold, Poverty in India

0

A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were partitioned into two groups, those below and those above the poverty line, and exposed to nutrient-content claimed advertisement treatments for healthy and unhealthy foods featuring the three appeals. The findings reaffirmed the interaction effects between perceivably healthy and unhealthy foods and different appeals reported in previous studies, and found interaction effects between consumer poverty level and response to the message appeals featured in the experimental food advertisements. Age, body mass index, current dieting status, education, and gender were examined as covariates.

Concepts: Health care, Health, Nutrition, Poverty, Body mass index, Poverty in the United States, Poverty threshold, Factorial experiment

0

People of low socio-economic status (SES) are particularly at risk for developing stress-related conditions. The purpose of this study is to examine depression, stress, and coping strategies among uninsured primary care patients who live below the 150th percentile of the federal poverty level. Specifically, this study compares the experiences of impoverished US-born English speakers, non-US-born English speakers, and Spanish speakers.

Concepts: Poverty, United States, Poverty in the United States, Spanish language, English language, Primary care, Poverty threshold, Poverty by country

0

Under the Massachusetts health reform, low income residents (those with incomes below 150 % of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]) were eligible for Medicaid and health insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums. Those with slightly higher incomes (150 %-300 % FPL) were eligible for exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments.

Concepts: Health care, Health insurance, Poverty, Economics, Poverty in the United States, Household income in the United States, Social security, Poverty threshold

0

Poverty is correlated with negative health outcomes in pediatric primary care and subspecialties; its association with childhood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patterns of care and clinical outcomes is not known. We describe family-reported financial hardship at a primary referral center in New England and explore the relationship between measures of poverty and patterns of care and clinical outcomes. Forty-five English-speaking parents of children after allogeneic HSCT in the prior 12 months completed a 1-time survey (response rate 88%). Low-income families, defined as ≤200% federal poverty level (FPL), were compared with all others. Eighteen (40%) families reported pre-HSCT incomes ≤200% FPL. Material hardship, including food, housing, or energy insecurity was reported by 17 (38%) families in the cohort. Low-income families reported disproportionate transplantation-related income losses, with 7 (39%) reporting annual income losses of >40% compared with 2 (18%) wealthier families (P = .02). In univariate analyses, 11 (61%) low-income children experienced graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of any grade in the first 180 days after HSCT compared with 2 (7%) wealthier children (P = .004). We conclude that low income and, in particular, material hardship, are prevalent in a New England pediatric HSCT population and represent targets for improvement in quality of life. The role of poverty in mediating GVHD deserves further investigation in larger studies that can control for known risk factors and may provide a targetable source of transplantation-associated morbidity.

Concepts: Disease, Poverty, Graft-versus-host disease, Poverty in the United States, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Household income in the United States, Wealth, Poverty threshold