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Concept: Potato chip

508

 To determine whether higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries, or potato chips is associated with incidence of hypertension.

Concepts: Potato, Potato chip, French fries

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BACKGROUND: Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. METHODS: This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women) ages 20–50 years (mean age 33 +/- 11, BMI 23 +/- 2 kg/m2) consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control), one cup (4 g, 15 kcal) popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal) popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal) potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining) was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. RESULTS: Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P < 0.05). Energy compensation was 220% +/- 967%, 76% +/- 143% and 42% +/- 75% after one cup popcorn, six cups popcorn and one cup potato chips, respectively. Combined energy intake was significantly greater (P < 0.01) during the potato chips condition (803 +/- 277 kcal) compared to control (716 +/- 279 kcal) or popcorn conditions (698 +/- 286 kcal for one cup and 739 +/- 294 kcal for six cups). Combined energy intakes from both popcorn conditions were not significantly different than control (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

Concepts: Food, Potato, Snack foods, Snack food, Meal, Calorie, Potato chip, Popcorn

28

Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Anniston, AL, residents have been associated with hypertension and diabetes. There have been no systematic interventions to reduce PCB body burdens in Anniston or other populations. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of 15 g/day of dietary olestra to reduce PCBs in Anniston residents. Blood PCBs and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene were measured at baseline and 4-month intervals in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial. Participants with elevated serum PCBs were randomized into two groups of 14 and received potato crisps made with olestra or vegetable oil (VO). Elimination rates during the study period were compared with 5-year prestudy rates. Eleven participants in the olestra group and 12 in the VO group completed the study. Except for one participant in the VO group, reasons for dropout were unrelated to treatments. The elimination rate of 37 non-coplanar PCB congeners during the 1-year trial was faster during olestra consumption compared to the pretrial period (-0.0829±0.0357 and -0.00864±0.0116 year(-1), respectively; P=.04), but not during VO consumption (-0.0413±0.0408 and -0.0283±0.0096 year(-1), respectively; P=.27). The concentration of PCBs in two olestra group participants decreased by 27% and 25% during the trial. There was no significant time by group interaction in change from baseline. However, group main effects for total PCBs and PCB 153 were of borderline significance. This pilot study has demonstrated that olestra can safely reduce body burdens of PCBs and supports a larger intervention trial that may also determine whether reduction in PCBs will reduce the risk of hypertension and diabetes.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB Congener List, Biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Chloracne, Potato chip, Olestra

15

BACKGROUND: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. METHODS: Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). RESULTS: The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK supermarkets (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. CONCLUSION: Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

Concepts: United States, Developed country, United Kingdom, Snack foods, Meal, Soft drink, Potato chip, Candy bar

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The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

Concepts: Brain, Energy, Potato, Reward system, Snack foods, Meal, Brain stimulation reward, Potato chip

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OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to celebrity endorsement in television (TV) food advertising and a nonfood context would affect ad libitum intake of the endorsed product and a perceived alternative brand. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 181 children from the UK aged 8-11 years viewed 1 of the following embedded within a cartoon: (1) a commercial for Walker’s Crisps (potato chips), featuring a long-standing celebrity endorser; (2) a commercial for a savory food; (3) TV footage of the same endorser in his well-known role as a TV presenter; or (4) a commercial for a nonfood item. Children’s ad libitum intake of potato chips labeled “Walker’s” and “supermarket brand” was measured using ANOVA. RESULTS: Children who viewed the endorsed commercial or the TV footage of the endorser outside of a food context consumed significantly more of the Walker’s chips compared with children in other groups. These children did not reduce their intake of the supermarket brand product to compensate; thus, the endorser effect contributed to overconsumption. CONCLUSION: The influence of a celebrity endorser on food intake in children extends beyond his or her role in the specific endorsed food commercial, prompting increased consumption of the endorsed brand even when the endorser has been viewed in a nonfood context. Our data suggest that the ubiquitous nature of celebrity media presence may reinforce unhealthy eating practices in children, although research with other endorsers is needed.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Eating, Food, Potato, Potato chip, French fries, Lay's

0

This chapter discusses the importance of modelling and control in increasing food process efficiency and ensuring product quality. Various approaches to both modelling and control in food processing are set in the context of the specific challenges in this industrial sector and latest developments in each area are discussed. Three industrial case studies are used to demonstrate the benefits of advanced measurement, modelling and control in food processes. The first case study illustrates the use of knowledge elicitation from expert operators in the process for the manufacture of potato chips (French fries) and the consequent improvements in process control to increase the consistency of the resulting product. The second case study highlights the economic benefits of tighter control of an important process parameter, moisture content, in potato crisp (chips) manufacture. The final case study describes the use of NIR spectroscopy in ensuring effective mixing of dry multicomponent mixtures and pastes. Practical implementation tips and infrastructure requirements are also discussed.

Concepts: Scientific method, United States, Case study, Automation, Potato, Process control, Potato chip, French fries

0

Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of sucrose and reducing sugars in potato tubers at low temperatures. This process is central for the potato processing industry. During potato chip and French fry production, reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction to produce dark pigmented products not acceptable to consumers. Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Group Andigena) constitute an enormous wealth of potato germplasm that can contribute to increase genetic diversity in breeding programs of many traits, including CIS.

Concepts: Solanaceae, Carbohydrate, Potato, Tuber, Acrylamide, Andes, Potato chip, French fries

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The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers' willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

Concepts: Health, Nutrition, Obesity, Dieting, Healthy diet, Potato, Body image, Potato chip

0

Acrylamide forms primarily from a reaction between reducing sugars (e.g., glucose and fructose) and an amino acid (asparagine, Asn) formed naturally in foods, including potatoes. This reaction occurs when carbohydrate-rich foods are heated at temperatures above 120 °C. Multiple potato varieties were transformed with potato genomic DNA that results in down-regulation of the expression of the asparagine synthetase-1 gene (Asn1), significantly reducing synthesis of free Asn, and consequently lowering the potential to form acrylamide during cooking. These potatoes with low acrylamide potential (LAP) were tested in agronomic trials, and processed into French fries and potato chips. Decreased levels of acrylamide were measured in these cooked food products when derived from LAP potatoes compared with those derived from conventional potatoes. These reductions can be directly attributed to reduction in Asn levels in the LAP potatoes. The corresponding average reduction in exposure to acrylamide from French fry and potato chip consumption is estimated to be 65%, which would amount to approximately a 25% reduction in overall dietary exposure. Considering that children consume nearly three times more acrylamide than adults on a per kg body weight basis, they would experience the most impact from the reduced acrylamide associated with LAP potatoes. The potential public health impacts, in context of dietary acrylamide exposure reduction, are discussed in this study.

Concepts: Amino acid, Nutrition, United States, Potato, Acrylamide, Cooking, Potato chip, French fries