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Concept: Potato chip


 To determine whether higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries, or potato chips is associated with incidence of hypertension.

Concepts: Potato, Potato chip, French fries


BACKGROUND: Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. METHODS: This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women) ages 20–50 years (mean age 33 +/- 11, BMI 23 +/- 2 kg/m2) consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control), one cup (4 g, 15 kcal) popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal) popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal) potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining) was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. RESULTS: Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P < 0.05). Energy compensation was 220% +/- 967%, 76% +/- 143% and 42% +/- 75% after one cup popcorn, six cups popcorn and one cup potato chips, respectively. Combined energy intake was significantly greater (P < 0.01) during the potato chips condition (803 +/- 277 kcal) compared to control (716 +/- 279 kcal) or popcorn conditions (698 +/- 286 kcal for one cup and 739 +/- 294 kcal for six cups). Combined energy intakes from both popcorn conditions were not significantly different than control (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

Concepts: Food, Potato, Snack foods, Snack food, Meal, Calorie, Potato chip, Popcorn


Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Anniston, AL, residents have been associated with hypertension and diabetes. There have been no systematic interventions to reduce PCB body burdens in Anniston or other populations. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of 15 g/day of dietary olestra to reduce PCBs in Anniston residents. Blood PCBs and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene were measured at baseline and 4-month intervals in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial. Participants with elevated serum PCBs were randomized into two groups of 14 and received potato crisps made with olestra or vegetable oil (VO). Elimination rates during the study period were compared with 5-year prestudy rates. Eleven participants in the olestra group and 12 in the VO group completed the study. Except for one participant in the VO group, reasons for dropout were unrelated to treatments. The elimination rate of 37 non-coplanar PCB congeners during the 1-year trial was faster during olestra consumption compared to the pretrial period (-0.0829±0.0357 and -0.00864±0.0116 year(-1), respectively; P=.04), but not during VO consumption (-0.0413±0.0408 and -0.0283±0.0096 year(-1), respectively; P=.27). The concentration of PCBs in two olestra group participants decreased by 27% and 25% during the trial. There was no significant time by group interaction in change from baseline. However, group main effects for total PCBs and PCB 153 were of borderline significance. This pilot study has demonstrated that olestra can safely reduce body burdens of PCBs and supports a larger intervention trial that may also determine whether reduction in PCBs will reduce the risk of hypertension and diabetes.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB Congener List, Biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Chloracne, Potato chip, Olestra


BACKGROUND: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. METHODS: Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). RESULTS: The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK supermarkets (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. CONCLUSION: Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

Concepts: United States, Developed country, United Kingdom, Snack foods, Meal, Soft drink, Potato chip, Candy bar


The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

Concepts: Brain, Energy, Potato, Reward system, Snack foods, Meal, Brain stimulation reward, Potato chip


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to celebrity endorsement in television (TV) food advertising and a nonfood context would affect ad libitum intake of the endorsed product and a perceived alternative brand. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 181 children from the UK aged 8-11 years viewed 1 of the following embedded within a cartoon: (1) a commercial for Walker’s Crisps (potato chips), featuring a long-standing celebrity endorser; (2) a commercial for a savory food; (3) TV footage of the same endorser in his well-known role as a TV presenter; or (4) a commercial for a nonfood item. Children’s ad libitum intake of potato chips labeled “Walker’s” and “supermarket brand” was measured using ANOVA. RESULTS: Children who viewed the endorsed commercial or the TV footage of the endorser outside of a food context consumed significantly more of the Walker’s chips compared with children in other groups. These children did not reduce their intake of the supermarket brand product to compensate; thus, the endorser effect contributed to overconsumption. CONCLUSION: The influence of a celebrity endorser on food intake in children extends beyond his or her role in the specific endorsed food commercial, prompting increased consumption of the endorsed brand even when the endorser has been viewed in a nonfood context. Our data suggest that the ubiquitous nature of celebrity media presence may reinforce unhealthy eating practices in children, although research with other endorsers is needed.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Eating, Food, Potato, Potato chip, French fries, Lay's


Improvement in the frying performance of palmolein oil with NaturFORT™ TRLG 101 (TRLG 101) liquid in addition to tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) has been evaluated. Four treatment groups (Negative control, 200 ppm TBHQ, 200 ppm TBHQ + 400 ppm TRLG 101 liquid and 200 ppm TBHQ + 750 ppm TRLG 101 liquid) were added to RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) palm olein oil which was used to produce potato chips. Frying trials were conducted for 120th frying cycles. The oil samples were analyzed for peroxide value, free fatty acid, p-anisidine value, oxidative stability index, %total polar compounds and Chroma (C*) values after every 20 frying cycles. Potato chips were analyzed for Chroma (C*) values after every 20 frying cycles. The results of oxidative stability index, total polar compounds and p-anisidine value showed that the addition of NaturFORT™ TRLG 101 liquid at 750 ppm had showed significantly better performance followed by the addition of NaturFORT™ TRLG 101 liquid at 400 ppm. Thus, the addition of NaturFORT™ TRLG 101 liquid as on top of TBHQ contributes to the improvement in the frying performance of palm olein oil with subject to their dosage and this could be a better solution for frying industries which would like to get extra frying cycles for their products without encountering the regulatory hurdles posed by the limitations of using such additives.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Fatty acid, Fat, Hydrogen peroxide, Potato, Oil, Potato chip


European manufacturers' data on acrylamide in potato crisps from 2002 to 2016 were analysed. A previous study showed a 53% reduction in mean acrylamide levels from 763 ng g(-1) in 2002 to 358 ng g(-1) in 2011. Analysis of data from the longer period showed that since 2011 there has been a levelling off, with the mean level for 2016 being 412 ng g(-1) (still a 46% reduction from 2002), suggesting that the most effective acrylamide reduction measures had been devised and implemented by 2011. There were similar trends in the 90(th) and 95(th) quantile values, with the 90(th) quantile values being below 1000 ng g(-1) (the European Commission’s current ‘Indicative Value’ for acrylamide in potato crisps) since 2010. The proportion of samples with acrylamide above 2000 ng g(-1) fell from 4.8% in 2002 to 0.6% in 2016. Acrylamide levels showed marked seasonal variability, being highest in the first half of the year when potatoes were being used from storage, and lowest from July to September when potatoes were being harvested. Acrylamide levels were higher in thicker types of crisp in the early years of the study, but this difference disappeared in the later years, suggesting that manufacturers had acted to reduce acrylamide formation in these products. Higher values for acrylamide were recorded in north and east Europe than in the south and west up to 2013. Levels in the north and east declined in recent years, but remained higher in the north than in the other regions. The manufacturers' data were compared with a much smaller dataset provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Levels of acrylamide in the EFSA dataset were consistently higher than in the manufacturers' data, possibly due to uneven sampling through the year and the seasonality of acrylamide levels.

Concepts: European Union, United States, Europe, European Commission, Potato, Acrylamide, Potato chip, French fries


Potato crisps, corn-based extruded snacks and other savoury snacks are very popular products especially among younger generations. These products could be a potential source of acrylamide (AA), a toxic compound which could develop during frying and baking processes. The purpose of this study was the assessment of the dietary intake to AA across six groups of consumers divided according to age through the consumption of potato crisps and other snacks, in order to eventually evaluate the margin of exposure (MOE) related to neurotoxic and carcinogenic critical endpoints. Different brands of potato crisps and other popular snacks were analyzed through a matrix solid-phase dispersion method followed by a bromination step and GC-MS quantification. The concentration of detected AA ranged from 21 to 3444 ng g-1 and the highest level occurred in potato crisps samples which showed a median value of 968 ng g-1. The risk characterization through MOE assessment revealed that five out of six consumers groups showed higher exposure values associated with an augmented carcinogenic risk.

Concepts: Toxicology, Toxicity, Potato, Carcinogen, Acrylamide, Neurotoxicity, Potato chip, French fries


This chapter discusses the importance of modelling and control in increasing food process efficiency and ensuring product quality. Various approaches to both modelling and control in food processing are set in the context of the specific challenges in this industrial sector and latest developments in each area are discussed. Three industrial case studies are used to demonstrate the benefits of advanced measurement, modelling and control in food processes. The first case study illustrates the use of knowledge elicitation from expert operators in the process for the manufacture of potato chips (French fries) and the consequent improvements in process control to increase the consistency of the resulting product. The second case study highlights the economic benefits of tighter control of an important process parameter, moisture content, in potato crisp (chips) manufacture. The final case study describes the use of NIR spectroscopy in ensuring effective mixing of dry multicomponent mixtures and pastes. Practical implementation tips and infrastructure requirements are also discussed.

Concepts: Scientific method, United States, Case study, Automation, Potato, Process control, Potato chip, French fries