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Concept: Potassium superoxide


The direct effect of the four catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and isoproterenol) on superoxide anion radicals (O2-•) was investigated. The reaction between 18-crown-6-ether and potassium superoxide in dimethylsulfoxide was used as a source of O2-•. The reactivity of catecholamines with O2-• was examined using chemiluminescence, reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping techniques. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide was included as the spin trap. The results showed that the four catecholamines were effective and efficient in inhibiting chemiluminescence accompanying the potassium superoxide/18-crown-6-ether system in a dose-dependent manner over the range 0.05-2 mm in the following order: adrenaline > noradrenaline > dopamine > isoproterenol, with, IC(50)  = 0.15 ± 0.02 mm 0.21 ± 0.03 mm, 0.27 ± 0.03 mm and 0.50 ± 0.04 mm, respectively. The catecholamines examined also exhibited a strong scavenging effect towards O2-• when evaluated this property by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction (56-73% at 1 m concentration). A very similar capacity of O2-• scavenging was monitored in the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping assay. The results suggest that catecholamines tested may involve a direct effect on scavenging O2- radicals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Redox, NADPH oxidase, Epinephrine, Superoxide, Chronic granulomatous disease, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Potassium superoxide


It is currently accepted that superoxide anion (O2•-) is an important mediator in pain and inflammation. The role of superoxide anion in pain and inflammation has been mainly determined indirectly by modulating its production and inactivation. Direct evidence using potassium superoxide (KO2), a superoxide anion donor, demonstrated that it induced thermal hyperalgesia, as assessed by the Hargreaves method. However, it remains to be determined whether KO2 is capable of inducing other inflammatory and nociceptive responses attributed to superoxide anion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the nociceptive and inflammatory effects of KO2. The KO2-induced inflammatory responses evaluated in mice were: mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic version of von Frey filaments), thermal hyperalgesia (hot plate), edema (caliper rule), myeloperoxidase activity (colorimetric assay), overt pain-like behaviors (flinches, time spent licking and writhing score), leukocyte recruitment, oxidative stress, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression (quantitative PCR). Administration of KO2 induced mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, paw edema, leukocyte recruitment, the writhing response, paw flinching, and paw licking in a dose-dependent manner. KO2 also induced time-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression in the paw skin. The nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components of KO2-induced responses were responsive to morphine (analgesic opioid), quercetin (antioxidant flavonoid), and/or celecoxib (anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) treatment. In conclusion, the well-established superoxide anion donor KO2 is a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms and pharmacological susceptibilities of superoxide anion-triggered nociceptive and inflammatory responses ranging from mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia to overt pain-like behaviors, edema, and leukocyte recruitment.

Concepts: Inflammation, Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Oxidative phosphorylation, Superoxide dismutase, Superoxide, Potassium superoxide, Chemical oxygen generator


We evaluated the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with PDTC and stimulated with an intraplantar or intraperitoneal injection of potassium superoxide, a superoxide anion donor. Subcutaneous PDTC treatment attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, paw oedema and leukocyte recruitment (neutrophils and macrophages). Intraplantar injection of superoxide anion activated NF-κB and increased cytokine production (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10) and oxidative stress (nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels) at the primary inflammatory foci and in the spinal cord (L4-L6). PDTC treatment inhibited superoxide anion-induced NF-κB activation, cytokine production and oxidative stress in the paw and spinal cord. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of PDTC successfully inhibited superoxide anion-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and inflammatory response in peripheral foci (paw). These results suggest that peripheral stimulus with superoxide anion activates the local and spinal cord oxidative- and NF-κB-dependent inflammatory nociceptive mechanisms. PDTC targets these events, therefore, inhibiting superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain in mice.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Monocyte, Antioxidant, Superoxide dismutase, Superoxide, Potassium superoxide, Superoxides


An unexpected reactivity of the superoxide ion leading to the synthesis of tetrachloroaryl/vinyl-substituted nortricyclenes through its dual mode of action has been reported. KO2 was found to be superior and the only reagent to perform this kind of reaction over other conventional bases. Addition of the antioxidant BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) improved the yields of methylenenortricyclenes. A complete deuterium incorporation was observed in the superoxide-mediated reaction in DMSO-d 6. Friedel-Crafts acylation reactions of 3-methylenenorticyclenes yielded 2-propanone-substituted pentachloronorbornenes.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Superoxide dismutase, Atom, Oxide, Superoxide, 2008 albums, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Potassium superoxide