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Concept: Popliteus muscle


BACKGROUND: A common goal of persons post-stroke is to regain community ambulation. The plantar flexor muscles play an important role in propulsion generation and swing initiation as previous musculoskeletal simulations have shown. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that simulation results quantifying changes in plantar flexor activation and function in individuals post-stroke were consistent with (1) the purpose of an intervention designed to enhance plantar flexor function and (2) expected muscle function during gait based on previous literature. METHODS: Three-dimensional, forward dynamic simulations were created to determine the changes in model activation and function of the paretic ankle plantar flexor muscles for eight patients post-stroke after a 12-weeks FastFES gait retraining program. RESULTS: An median increase of 0.07 (Range [-0.01,0.22]) was seen in simulated activation averaged across all plantar flexors during the double support phase of gait from pre- to post-intervention. A concurrent increase in walking speed and plantar flexor induced forward center of mass acceleration by the plantar flexors was seen post-intervention for seven of the eight subject simulations. Additionally, post-training, the plantar flexors had an simulated increase in contribution to knee flexion acceleration during double support. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, muscle-actuated musculoskeletal models were used to simulate the effect of a gait retraining intervention on post-stroke muscle model predicted activation and function. The simulations showed a new pattern of simulated activation for the plantar flexor muscles after training, suggesting that the subjects activated these muscles with more appropriate timing following the intervention. Functionally, simulations calculated that the plantar flexors provided greater contribution to knee flexion acceleration after training, which is important for increasing swing phase knee flexion and foot clearance.

Concepts: Knee, Sartorius muscle, Flexion, Extension, Semitendinosus muscle, Semimembranosus muscle, Popliteus muscle, Musculoskeletal system


INTRODUCTION: Many studies regarding spinal sagittal alignment were focused mainly on above-hip structures, not considering the knee joint. Knee-spine syndrome was proposed earlier, but the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been revealed. The aim of the study was to demonstrate how spinopelvic alignment and sagittal balance change in response to simulated knee flexion in normal non-diseased population. METHODS: Thirty young male were enrolled in the study cohort. Two motion-controlled knee braces were used to simulate knee flexion of 0°, 15°, and 30° settings. Whole spine and lower extremity lateral radiographs were taken at each knee setting of 0°, 15°, and 30° flexion. Spinal and pelvic parameters were measured, including two angular parameters, femoropelvic angle (FPA) and femoral tilt angle (FTA). RESULTS: The following equation can be made; PT (pelvic tilt) = FPA + FTA. The mean values of FPA and lumbar lordosis decreased significantly at 15° and 30° knee settings compared to the parameters at the 0° knee setting, while the mean values of pelvic tilt and sacral slope rarely changed. Results also showed FTA was not correlated with PT, but strongly correlated with FPA (R = -0.83, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The knee flexion resulted in decrease of lumbar lordosis without a significant change of pelvic posture in non-diseased population group.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Knee, Joint, Sartorius muscle, Flexion, Extension, Semimembranosus muscle, Popliteus muscle


The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle oxygenation of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles during repeated muscle contractions under the same condition. In addition, we compared changes in muscle oxygenation between superficial and deep regions of both muscles.

Concepts: Knee, Muscle contraction, Sartorius muscle, Flexion, Extension, Semitendinosus muscle, Semimembranosus muscle, Popliteus muscle


The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift. During the 1-RM trials, 3D knee joint kinematics and knee extensor and flexor electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously. Significantly greater 1-RM (6.2 ± 5.0%; p < .01) and mean eccentric knee extensor EMG (32.2 ± 6.7%; p < .01) were found after the CLR warm-up compared to the FWR condition. However, no difference (p > .05) was found in concentric EMG, eccentric or concentric knee angular velocity, or peak knee flexion angle. Performing a CLR warm-up enhanced subsequent free-weight 1-RM performance without changes in knee flexion angle or eccentric and concentric knee angular velocities; thus a real 1-RM increase was achieved as the mechanics of the lift were not altered. These results are indicative of a potentiating effect of CLR in a warm-up, which may benefit athletes in tasks where high-level strength is required.

Concepts: Exercise, Knee, Sartorius muscle, Flexion, Extension, Semitendinosus muscle, Semimembranosus muscle, Popliteus muscle


This study aimed to determine the intra- and inter-session reliability of neuromuscular assessment of plantar flexor (PF) muscles at three knee angles.

Concepts: Knee, Sartorius muscle, Flexion, Extension, Semitendinosus muscle, Semimembranosus muscle, Popliteus muscle, Gracilis muscle


Repairs of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus can be technically challenging. In contrast to medial meniscus repairs, the capsule around the posterior segment attachment of the lateral meniscus is quite thin. This study evaluates the clinical results of an arthroscopic all-inside repair technique for unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears, using a suture repair placed directly into the popliteus tendon.

Concepts: Knee, Surface tension, Arthroscopy, Lateral meniscus, Meniscus, Popliteus muscle, Medial meniscus, Meniscal cartilage replacement therapy


We report our experience with 6 patients who had total knee replacements with lateral-sided knee pain, referred for ultrasound (US) assessment and US-guided injection. All cases showed an osteophyte within the popliteus sulcus of the lateral femoral condyle impinging on the adjacent tendon. Five of 6 patients reported improvement of symptoms immediately after US-guided injection of an anesthetic and a steroid. Ultrasound has a unique role in the imaging of knee replacements because of its real-time capabilities and absence of artifacts at the popliteus tendon origin.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Report, Knee, Knee replacement, Replacements, Popliteus muscle


The posterolateral corner (PLC) structures including the popliteofibular ligament (PFL), popliteus tendon (PT) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are important soft tissues for posterior translational, external rotational and varus angulation knee joint instabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of deficient PLC structures on the kinematics of the knee joint under gait and squat loading conditions. We developed subject-specific computational models with full 12-degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints for four male subjects and one female subject. The subject-specific knee joint models were validated with computationally predicted muscle activation, electromyography data and experimental data from previous study. According to our results, deficiency of the PFL did not significantly influence knee joint kinematics compared to an intact model under gait loading conditions. Compared with an intact model under gait and squat loading conditions, deficiency of the PT led to significant increases in external rotation and posterior translation, while LCL deficiency increased varus angulation. Deficiency of all PLC structures led to the greatest increases in external rotation, varus angulation, and posterior translation. These results suggest that the PT is an important structure for external rotation and posterior translation, while the LCL is important for varus angulation under dynamic loading conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Osteoarthritis, Knee, Joint, Synovial joint, Joints, Ligament, Copyright, Popliteus muscle


Postero-lateral knee instability raises surgical challenges. Of the many available reconstruction techniques, few ensure anatomical reconstruction of the postero-lateral corner (PLC). The “Versailles” technique ensures the anatomical reconstruction of the three main PLC stabilisers (lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteo-fibular ligament)by using either a hamstring autograft or a tendon allograft.

Concepts: Creativity techniques, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Flexion, Ligament, Tendon, Popliteus muscle