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Concept: Polysorbate 80

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Tween 80 (polysorbate 80) has been used as a reducing agent and protecting agent to prepare stable water-soluble silver nanoparticles on a large scale through a one-pot process, which is simple and environmentally friendly. Silver ions can accelerate the oxidation of Tween 80 and then get reduced in the reaction process. The well-ordered arrays such as ribbon-like silver nanostructures could be obtained by adjusting the reaction conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that ribbon-like silver nanostructures (approximately 50 nm in length and approximately 2 mum in width) are composed of a large number of silver nanocrystals with a size range of 2 to 3 nm. In addition, negative absorbance around 320 nm in the UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles has been observed, probably owing to the instability of nanosized silver colloids.

Concepts: Electron, Hydrogen, Redox, Oxidizing agent, Nanotechnology, Reducing agent, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate

138

Two O/W forskolin-loaded nano-emulsions (0.075% wt.) based on medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (Polysorbate 80 or Polysorbate 40) were studied as forskolin delivery systems. The nano-emulsions were prepared by the PIC method. The mean droplet size of the nano-emulsions with Polysorbate 80 and Polysorbate 40 with oil/surfactant (O/S) ratios of 20/80 and 80% water concentration, measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was of 118 nm and 111 nm, respectively. Stability of the formulations, as assessed by light backscattering for 24 h, showed that both nano-emulsions were stable at 25ºC. Studies of forskolin in vitro skin permeation from the nano-emulsions and from a triglyceride solution were carried out at 32ºC, using Franz-type diffusion cells. A mixture of PBS/ethanol (60/40 v/v) was used as a receptor solution. The highest flux and permeability coefficient was obtained for the system stabilized with Polysorbate 80 (6.91±0.75 µg·cm-2·h-1 and 9.21·10-3±1.00·10-3 cm·h-1, respectively) but no significant differences were observed with the flux and permeability coefficient value of forskolin dissolved in oil. The obtained results showed that the nano-emulsions developed in this study could be used as effective carriers for topical administration of forskolin.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Surfactant, Colloidal chemistry, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20

29

Escherichia coli biotype O104:H4 recently caused the deadliest E. coli outbreak ever reported. Based on prior results, it was hypothesized that compounds inhibiting biofilm formation by O104:H4 would reduce its pathogenesis. The nonionic surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80) and polysorbate 20 (PS20) were found to reduce biofilms by ≥ 90% at submicromolar concentrations and elicited nearly complete dispersal of preformed biofilms. PS80 did not significantly impact in vivo colonization in a mouse infection model; however, mice treated with PS80 exhibited almost no intestinal inflammation or tissue damage while untreated mice exhibited robust pathology. As PS20 and PS80 are classified as ‘Generally Recognized as Safe’ (GRAS) compounds by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these compounds have clinical potential to treat future O104:H4 outbreaks.

Concepts: Bacteria, Model organism, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Biofilm, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20

28

Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) composed of solid and liquid lipids, and surfactants are potentially good colloidal drug carriers. Before NLC can be used as drug carriers, the cytotoxicity of their components must be ascertained. The cytotoxicity of solid lipids (trilaurin, palmitin, docosanoid acid and hydrogenated palm oil [HPO]) and surfactants (Polysorbate 20, 80 and 85) were determined on BALB/c 32 3T3 cells. The HPO and Polysorbate 80 were least cytotoxic and used with olive oil in the formulation of NLC. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, specific surface area and crystallinity index of the NLC were 61.14 nm, 0.461, -25.4 mV and 49.07 m2 and 27.12% respectively, while the melting point was 4.3 °C lower than of 36 HPO. Unlike in serum-free, NLC incubated in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium did not show particle growth, suggesting that serum proteins in medium 38 inhibit nanoparticles aggregation. The study also showed that NLC was less toxic to BALB/c 3T3 cells than Polysorbate 80. Thus, NLC with olive oil, HPO and 40 Polysorbate 80 as components are potentially good drug carriers with minimal cytotoxicity on normal cells.

Concepts: Protein, Colloid, Cytotoxicity, Liquid, Trans fat, Colloidal chemistry, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate

28

A differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) based high-throughput screening assay with the fluorescent molecular rotor CCVJ (9-(2-carboxy-2-cyanovinyl)julolidine) was developed. CCVJ is mainly sensitive to viscosity and less to polarity in comparison to polarity-sensitive dyes like SYPRO Orange, which was commonly used in DSF measurements. Therefore DSF with CCVJ is a suitable approach for high-throughput screening and stability testing of surfactant-containing protein formulations. Due to the different detection principles of CCVJ and SYPRO Orange, the midpoint of the fluorescence curve of CCVJ, defined as temperature of aggregation (Tagg), was obtained at a higher temperature than the midpoint of the SYPRO Orange fluorescence curve, defined as temperature of hydrophobic exposure (Th). Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was used as model protein for all measurements. Commonly used surfactants in therapeutic protein formulations (polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80 and poloxamer 188) were investigated by DSF with CCVJ and SYPRO Orange. The fluorescence properties of CCVJ were minimally affected by investigated surfactants at concentrations typically used in pharmaceutical protein formulations. SYPRO Orange however, showed high background fluorescence as it also interacts with hydrophobic groups of surfactants. CCVJ was also capable of detecting thermally induced aggregation in the commercial polysorbate 80-containing product Neupogen®.

Concepts: Protein, Fluorescence, Oxygen, Molecular biology, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20

27

The effects of selected nonionic emulsifiers on the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced by an emulsification/evaporation technique were studied. The emulsifiers used were polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60 and Polysorbate 80) and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucrose laurate, palmitate, stearate and oleate). The mean particle diameters of the nanodispersions ranged from 70 nm to 150 nm, depending on the emulsifier used. In the prepared nanodispersions, the astaxanthin particle diameter decreased with increasing emulsifier hydrophilicity and decreasing carbon number of the fatty acid in the emulsifier structure. Astaxanthin nanodispersions with the smallest particle diameters were produced with Polysorbate 20 and sucrose laurate among the polysorbates and the sucrose esters, respectively. We also found that the Polysorbate 80- and sucrose oleate-stabilized nanodispersions had the highest astaxanthin losses (i.e., the lowest astaxanthin contents in the final products) among the nanodispersions. This work demonstrated the importance of emulsifier type in determining the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nano-dispersions.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Fat, Ester, Hydrolysis, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20, Non-ionic surfactants

0

The primary objective of this study was to develop lipid-based self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) without using any organic cosolvents that would spontaneously form microemulsions upon dilution with water. Cosolvents were avoided to prevent possible precipitation of drug upon dilution and other stability issues. Different polysorbates, namely, Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, and Tween 80, were used as surfactants, and Captex 355 EP/NF (glycerol tricaprylate/caprate) or its 1:1 mixture with Capmul MCM NF (glycerol monocaprylocaprate) were used as lipids. Captex 355-Tween-water ternary phase diagrams showed that oil-in-water microemulsions were formed only when the surfactant content was high (80-90%) and the lipid content low (10-20%). Thus, mixtures of Tweens with Captex 355 alone were not suitable to prepare SMEDDS with substantial lipid contents. However, when Captex 355 was replaced with the 1:1 mixture of Captex 355 and Capmul MCM, clear isotropic microemulsion regions in phase diagrams with sizes in the increasing order of Tween 20 < Tween 40 < Tween 60 < Tween 80 were obtained. Tween 80 had the most profound effect among all surfactants as microemulsions were formed with lipid to surfactant ratios as high as 7:3, which may be attributed to the presence of double bond in its side chain that increased the curvature of surfactant layer. Thus, lipid-surfactant mixtures containing 1:1 mixture of medium chain triglyceride (Captex 355) and monoglyceride (Capmul MCM) and as low as 30% Tween 80 were identified as organic cosolvent-free systems for the preparation of SMEDDS. Formulations with a model drug, probucol, dispersed spontaneously and rapidly upon dilution with water to form microemulsions without any drug precipitation.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Lipid, Emulsion, Colloidal chemistry, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20, Non-ionic surfactants

0

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of commonly used surfactants (at 0.01% w/v concentration) on mechanical, thermal, and photostability of a monoclonal antibody (MAb1) of IgG1 sub-class and to evaluate the minimum concentration of surfactant (Polysorbate 80) required in protecting MAb1 from mechanical stress. Surfactants evaluated were non-ionic surfactants, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 20, Pluronic F-68 (polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block polymer), Brij 35 (polyoxyethylene lauryl ether), Triton X-100, and an anionic surfactant, Caprylic acid (1-Heptanecarboxylic acid). After evaluating effect of surfactants and determining stabilizing effect of Polysorbate 80 against mechanical stress without compromising thermal and photostability of MAb1, the minimum concentration of Polysorbate 80 required for mechanical stability was further examined. Polysorbate 80 concentration was varied from 0 to 0.02%. Mechanical stability was evaluated by agitation of MAb1 at 300 rotations per minute at room temperature for 72 h. Samples were analyzed for purity by SEC-HPLC, turbidity by absorbance at 350 nm, visible particles by visual inspection, and sub-visible particles by light obscuration technique on a particle analyzer. All non-ionic surfactants tested showed a similar effect in protecting against mechanical stress and did not exhibit any significant negative effect on thermal and photostability. However, Caprylic acid had a slightly negative effect on mechanical and photostability when compared to the non-ionic surfactants or sample without surfactant. This work demonstrated that polysorbate 80 is better than other surfactants tested and that a concentration of at least 0.005% (w/v) Polysorbate 80 is needed to protect MAb1 against mechanical stress.

Concepts: Emulsion, Surfactant, Solution, Colloidal chemistry, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20, Non-ionic surfactants

0

Surface and interfacial adsorption of antibody molecules could cause structural unfolding and desorbed molecules could trigger solution aggregation, resulting in the compromise of physical stability. Although antibody adsorption is important and its relevance to many mechanistic processes has been proposed, few techniques can offer direct structural information about antibody adsorption under different conditions. The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the power of neutron reflection to unravel the amount and structural conformation of the adsorbed antibody layers at the air/water interface with and without surfactant, using a monoclonal antibody ‘COE-3’ as the model. By selecting isotopic contrasts from different ratios of H2O and D2O, the adsorbed amount, thickness and extent of the immersion of the antibody layer could be determined unambiguously. Upon mixing with the commonly-used non-ionic surfactant Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), the surfactant in the mixed layer could be distinguished from antibody by using both hydrogenated and deuterated surfactants. Neutron reflection measurements from the co-adsorbed layers in null reflecting water revealed that, although the surfactant started to remove antibody from the surface at 1/100 critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant, complete removal was not achieved until above 1/10 CMC. The neutron study also revealed that antibody molecules retained their globular structure when either adsorbed by themselves or co-adsorbed with the surfactant under the conditions studied.

Concepts: Adsorption, Surfactant, Micelle, Solution, Colloidal chemistry, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Non-ionic surfactants

0

While the majority of host cell protein (HCP) impurities are effectively removed in typical downstream purification processes, a small population of HCPs are particularly challenging. Previous studies have identified HCPs that are challenging for a variety of reasons. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) - a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) HCP that functions to hydrolyze esters in triglycerides - was one of ten HCPs identified in previous studies as being susceptible to retention in downstream processing. LPL may degrade polysorbate 80 (PS-80) and polysorbate 20 (PS-20) in final product formulations due to the structural similarity between polysorbates and triglycerides. In this work, recombinant LPL was found to have enzymatic activity against PS-80 and PS-20 in a range of solution conditions that are typical of mAb formulations. LPL knockout CHO cells were created with CRISPR and TALEN technologies and resulting cell culture harvest fluid demonstrated a significantly reduced polysorbate degradation without significant impact on cell viability when compared to wild type samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Protein, Enzyme, Cell culture, Chinese hamster ovary cell, Chinese hamster, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20