SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Polymerase

186

High-throughput recording of signals embedded within inaccessible micro-environments is a technological challenge. The ideal recording device would be a nanoscale machine capable of quantitatively transducing a wide range of variables into a molecular recording medium suitable for long-term storage and facile readout in the form of digital data. We have recently proposed such a device, in which cation concentrations modulate the misincorporation rate of a DNA polymerase (DNAP) on a known template, allowing DNA sequences to encode information about the local cation concentration. In this work we quantify the cation sensitivity of DNAP misincorporation rates, making possible the indirect readout of cation concentration by DNA sequencing. Using multiplexed deep sequencing, we quantify the misincorporation properties of two DNA polymerases - Dpo4 and Klenow exo(-) - obtaining the probability and base selectivity of misincorporation at all positions within the template. We find that Dpo4 acts as a DNA recording device for Mn(2+) with a misincorporation rate gain of ∼2%/mM. This modulation of misincorporation rate is selective to the template base: the probability of misincorporation on template T by Dpo4 increases >50-fold over the range tested, while the other template bases are affected less strongly. Furthermore, cation concentrations act as scaling factors for misincorporation: on a given template base, Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) change the overall misincorporation rate but do not alter the relative frequencies of incoming misincorporated nucleotides. Characterization of the ion dependence of DNAP misincorporation serves as the first step towards repurposing it as a molecular recording device.

Concepts: DNA, Polymerase chain reaction, Chemistry, DNA replication, DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I, Polymerase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme

144

Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan. Currently, definitive diagnosis of infection requires time-consuming laboratory work. To diagnose rapidly on-site, we developed a field-friendly procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral cavity lesions. DNA was extracted from goat saliva spiked with orf virus as a proxy for Japanese serows by a commercial kit without the use of electricity, and the quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Extracted DNA was amenable to DNA amplification, the same as when extracted in a laboratory. Next, to find optimal conditions for DNA amplification by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), Bst and Csa DNA polymerases and 3 colorimetric indicators for visual diagnosis, hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), malachite green and D-QUICK, were compared using a portable cordless incubator. The combination of Bst or Csa DNA polymerase with HNB was found to be easiest for visual diagnosis by the naked eye, and viral DNA was successfully amplified from all orf virus strains used. These results suggest that the procedure established here can work completely on-site and can be useful for definitive diagnosis and differentiation of orf virus infection in Japanese serows in remote mountainous areas.

Concepts: DNA, Polymerase chain reaction, Enzyme, DNA replication, Reverse transcriptase, DNA polymerase, Polymerase, Primer

31

A detailed understanding of the mechanisms that underlie antibiotic killing is important for the derivation of new classes of antibiotics and clinically useful adjuvants for current antimicrobial therapies. Our efforts to understand why DinB (DNA polymerase IV) overproduction is cytotoxic to Escherichia coli led to the unexpected insight that oxidation of guanine to 8-oxo-guanine in the nucleotide pool underlies much of the cell death caused by both DinB overproduction and bactericidal antibiotics. We propose a model in which the cytotoxicity of beta-lactams and quinolones predominantly results from lethal double-strand DNA breaks caused by incomplete repair of closely spaced 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine lesions, whereas the cytotoxicity of aminoglycosides might additionally result from mistranslation due to the incorporation of 8-oxo-guanine into newly synthesized RNAs.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Cell, Bacteria, Polymerase, Cytosine, Bactericide

30

The development of personalized medicine-in which medical treatment is customized to an individual on the basis of genetic information-requires techniques that can sequence DNA quickly and cheaply. Single-molecule sequencing technologies, such as nanopores, can potentially be used to sequence long strands of DNA without labels or amplification, but a viable technique has yet to be established. Here, we show that single DNA molecules can be sequenced by monitoring the electrical conductance of a phi29 DNA polymerase as it incorporates unlabelled nucleotides into a template strand of DNA. The conductance of the polymerase is measured by attaching it to a protein transistor that consists of an antibody molecule (immunoglobulin G) bound to two gold nanoparticles, which are in turn connected to source and drain electrodes. The electrical conductance of the DNA polymerase exhibits well-separated plateaux that are ∼3 pA in height. Each plateau corresponds to an individual base and is formed at a rate of ∼22 nucleotides per second. Additional spikes appear on top of the plateaux and can be used to discriminate between the four different nucleotides. We also show that the sequencing platform works with a variety of DNA polymerases and can sequence difficult templates such as homopolymers.

Concepts: Antibody, DNA, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I, Polymerase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme

29

The ability to detect DNA modification sites at single base resolution could significantly advance studies regarding DNA adduct levels, which are extremely difficult to determine. Artificial nucleotides that are specifically incorporated opposite a modified DNA site offer a potential strategy for detection of such sites by DNA polymerase-based systems. Here we investigated newly synthesized base-modified benzimidazole-derived 2´-deoxynucleoside-5´-O-triphosphates in their action on DNA polymerases when performing translesion DNA synthesis past the pro-mutagenic DNA adduct O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BnG). We found that a mutated form of KlenTaq DNA polymerase, i.e. KTqM747K catalyzed O(6)-BnG adduct-specific processing of the artificial BenziTP in favor of the natural dNTPs. Steady-state kinetic parameters revealed that KTqM747K catalysis of BenziTP is 25-fold more efficient for template O(6)-BnG than G, and 5-fold more efficient than natural dTMP misincorporation in adduct bypass. Furthermore, the nucleotide analog BenziTP is required for full-length product formation in O(6)-BnG bypass, as without BenziTP the polymerase stalls at the adduct site. By combining the KTqM747K polymerase and BenziTP, a first round of DNA synthesis enabled subsequent amplification of Benzi-containing DNA. These results advance the development of technologies for detecting DNA adducts.

Concepts: DNA, Base pair, DNA replication, Reverse transcriptase, DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I, Polymerase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme

27

We investigated several methods for obtaining successful short tandem repeat (STR) results from high-humic acid (HA)-content samples. DNA purification efficiency was tested for QIAquick(®) PCR Purification, QIAamp(®) DNA Investigator and Prepfiler™ Forensic DNA Extraction kits. HA-removal capacity of Inhibitor Remover and InhibitEX(®) Tablet was tested. Experiments on overcoming HA effects on STR amplification were conducted using an AmpliTaq Gold(®) DNA Polymerase and a TaKaRa Ex Taq™ Hot Start Version (Ex Taq HS) with BSA addition. QIAquick kit was most efficient in HA removal and Ex Taq HS showed high resistance to HA. Increasing the amounts of Taq polymerases and BSA addition were shown to be efficient in overcoming PCR inhibition, but BSA addition was superior to the former method. Inhibitor Remover and InhibitEX(®) Tablet did not positively affect the STR results. This study will help achieve better STR results with high-HA-content samples.

Concepts: DNA, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, DNA replication, DNA polymerase, Polymerase, Short tandem repeat, Thermus aquaticus

25

Scalable, high-throughput DNA sequencing is a prerequisite for precision medicine and biomedical research. Recently, we presented a nanopore-based sequencing-by-synthesis (Nanopore-SBS) approach, which used a set of nucleotides with polymer tags that allow discrimination of the nucleotides in a biological nanopore. Here, we designed and covalently coupled a DNA polymerase to an α-hemolysin (αHL) heptamer using the SpyCatcher/SpyTag conjugation approach. These porin-polymerase conjugates were inserted into lipid bilayers on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based electrode array for high-throughput electrical recording of DNA synthesis. The designed nanopore construct successfully detected the capture of tagged nucleotides complementary to a DNA base on a provided template. We measured over 200 tagged-nucleotide signals for each of the four bases and developed a classification method to uniquely distinguish them from each other and background signals. The probability of falsely identifying a background event as a true capture event was less than 1.2%. In the presence of all four tagged nucleotides, we observed sequential additions in real time during polymerase-catalyzed DNA synthesis. Single-polymerase coupling to a nanopore, in combination with the Nanopore-SBS approach, can provide the foundation for a low-cost, single-molecule, electronic DNA-sequencing platform.

Concepts: DNA, Molecular biology, Biology, Base pair, DNA replication, Nucleotide, DNA polymerase, Polymerase

25

We show by whole genome sequence analysis that loss of RNase H2 activity increases loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains harboring the pol2-M644G allele encoding a mutant version of DNA polymerase ε that increases ribonucleotide incorporation. This led us to analyze the effects of loss of RNase H2 on LOH and on non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) in mutant diploid strains with deletions of genes encoding RNase H2 subunits (rnh201Δ, rnh202Δ, and rnh203Δ), topoisomerase 1 (top1Δ), and/or carrying mutant alleles of DNA polymerases ε, α, and δ. We observed a ~7-fold elevation of the LOH rate in RNase H2 mutants encoding wild-type DNA polymerases. Strains carrying the pol2-M644G allele displayed a 7-fold elevation in the LOH rate, and synergistic 23-fold elevation in combination with rnh201Δ. In comparison, strains carrying the pol2-M644L mutation that decreases ribonucleotide incorporation displayed lower LOH rates. The LOH rate was not elevated in strains carrying the pol1-L868M or pol3-L612M alleles that result in increased incorporation of ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis by polymerases α and δ, respectively. A similar trend was observed in an NAHR assay, albeit with smaller phenotypic differentials. The ribonucleotide-mediated increases in the LOH and NAHR rates were strongly dependent on TOP1. These data add to recent reports on the asymmetric mutagenicity of ribonucleotides caused by topoisomerase 1 processing of ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Mutation, Genome, DNA replication, DNA polymerase, Polymerase

24

Family B DNA polymerases (PolBs) play a central role during replication of viral and cellular chromosomes. Here, we report the discovery of a third major group of PolBs, which we denote primer-independent PolB (piPolB), that might be a link between the previously known protein-primed and RNA/DNA-primed PolBs. PiPolBs are encoded by highly diverse mobile genetic elements, pipolins, integrated in the genomes of diverse bacteria and also present as circular plasmids in mitochondria. Biochemical characterization showed that piPolB displays efficient DNA polymerization activity that can use undamaged and damaged templates and is endowed with proofreading and strand displacement capacities. Remarkably, the protein is also capable of template-dependent de novo DNA synthesis, i.e., DNA-priming activity, thereby breaking the long-standing dogma that replicative DNA polymerases require a pre-existing primer for DNA synthesis. We suggest that piPolBs are involved in self-replication of pipolins and may also contribute to bacterial DNA damage tolerance.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Cell, Bacteria, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA polymerase, Polymerase

24

The synthesis and characterization of novel acyclic and cyclic pyridone-based nucleosides and nucleotides is described. In total, seven nucleosides and four nucleotides were synthesized. None of the tested nucleosides showed inhibitory properties against Klenow exo- polymerase and M.MuLV and HIV-1 reverse transcriptases. The nucleotides containing 4-chloro- and 4-bromo-2-pyridone as a nucleobase were accepted by the Klenow fragment, but at the expense of fidelity and extension efficiency.

Concepts: DNA, RNA, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Adenine, Nucleobase, DNA polymerase I, Polymerase