SciCombinator

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Concept: Pneumoperitoneum

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BACKGROUND:: The authors tested the hypothesis that during laparoscopic surgery, Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum may worsen chest wall elastance, concomitantly decreasing transpulmonary pressure, and that a protective ventilator strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction, by increasing transpulmonary pressure, would result in alveolar recruitment and improvement in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. METHODS:: In 29 consecutive patients, a recruiting maneuver followed by positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O maintained until the end of surgery was applied after pneumoperitoneum induction. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, blood pressure, and cardiac index were measured before (TBSL) and after pneumoperitoneum with zero positive end-expiratory pressure (TpreOLS), after recruitment with positive end-expiratory pressure (TpostOLS), and after peritoneum desufflation with positive end-expiratory pressure (Tend). RESULTS:: Esophageal pressure was used for partitioning respiratory mechanics between lung and chest wall (data are mean ± SD): on TpreOLS, chest wall elastance (Ecw) and elastance of the lung (EL) increased (8.2 ± 0.9 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 cm H2O/L, respectively, on TBSL; P = 0.00016; and 11.69 ± 1.68 vs. 9.61 ± 1.52 cm H2O/L on TBSL; P = 0.0007). On TpostOLS, both chest wall elastance and EL decreased (5.2 ± 1.2 and 8.62 ± 1.03 cm H2O/L, respectively; P = 0.00015 vs. TpreOLS), and PaO2/inspiratory oxygen fraction improved (491 ± 107 vs. 425 ± 97 on TpreOLS; P = 0.008) remaining stable thereafter. Recruited volume (the difference in lung volume for the same static airway pressure) was 194 ± 80 ml. PplatRS remained stable while inspiratory transpulmonary pressure increased (11.65 + 1.37 cm H2O vs. 9.21 + 2.03 on TpreOLS; P = 0.007). All respiratory mechanics parameters remained stable after abdominal desufflation. Hemodynamic parameters remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS:: In patients submitted to laparoscopic surgery in Trendelenburg position, an open lung strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction increased transpulmonary pressure and led to alveolar recruitment and improvement of Ecw and gas exchange.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Heart, Respiratory physiology, Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Lung volumes, Pneumoperitoneum

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The rate of stoma reversal after Hartmann procedure is low, principally because of the technically demanding nature of the reversal procedure and preexisting comorbid disease frequently present in this patient group. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure is an attractive alternative that can reduce perioperative morbidity but the feasibility of completing the procedure laparoscopically is often limited by extensive adhesion formation present after the initial open operation. We describe a technique for laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure where the stoma is mobilized externally and a pneumoperitoneum established through this preexisting defect. Results for the first 7 cases show a median operative duration of 132 minutes and length of hospital stay of 6 days with no conversions. Insertion of the operating ports under direct vision and a more limited dissection to facilitate the anastomosis represents an alternative operative strategy that can be performed successfully, even in patients with comorbid disease.

Concepts: Time, Patient, Hospital, Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Pneumoperitoneum, Hartmann's operation

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Laparoscopic surgery has evolved as an important field of surgery due to its clear benefits when compared to open laparotomy surgery. However, specific complications of laparoscopic surgery have been reported, of which the majority are complications associated with first entry to the abdominal cavity. The emergence of bariatric surgery, combined with the special considerations of the abdominal wall and cavity of obese patients, leads to seeking new modalities of access to the abdominal cavity in this specific population.Kii Fios First Entry Bladeless Trocar (Applied) is a new device that may allow surgeons to facilitate the creation of pneumoperitoneum. This prospective multicenter nonrandomized trial aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Kii Fios First Entry Bladeless Trocar in laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

Concepts: Obesity, Surgery, Abdomen, Bariatric surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparotomy, Pneumoperitoneum, Trocar

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To investigate whether carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum cause ischemia-reperfusion injury to the ovaries during laparoscopic surgery.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Magnesium, Surgery, Carbon, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Pneumoperitoneum

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Whether the deleterious effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on the kidneys are exacerbated in the obese population remains unknown. We hypothesized that increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing noncardiac laparoscopic surgery.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Obesity, Surgery, Body mass index, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Pneumoperitoneum

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Experimental models of laparoscopic surgery generally use large animals owing to a sufficient abdominal working space. We developed a novel laparoscopic surgery model in rats. We performed intestinal anastomosis to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of this model.

Concepts: Surgery, Small intestine, Model, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Anastomosis, Pneumoperitoneum

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To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum and head position during laparoscopic surgery on intracranial pressures (ICPs) using sonographic measurements of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD).

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Optic nerve, Positioning, Pneumoperitoneum

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Evidence indicates that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (PNP) reduces postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. A lower insufflation pressure may hamper visibility and working space. The aim of the study is to investigate whether deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) improves surgical conditions during low-pressure PNP.

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Pneumoperitoneum

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Laparoscopic surgery involves the creation of a carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum to facilitate a clear surgical view, which may result in an elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Depending on the surgical area, steep Trendelenburg positioning may be used as well, further increasing the ICP. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of laparoscopic surgery on changes in ICP assessed by ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), which is a generally accepted simple, reliable, and non-invasive ICP measurement technique.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Surgery, Intracranial pressure, Carbon, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Pneumoperitoneum

0

Endometriomas are a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. We report a case of a port site endometrioma presenting with an umbilical swelling. The patient underwent a laparoscopy for pelvic endometriosis 6 months previously and presented with a swelling around her umbilical port site scar associated with cyclical pain during menses. Ultrasound scan reported a well-defined lesion in the umbilicus and MRI scanning excluded other pathology. As she was symptomatic, she underwent an exploration of the scar and excision of the endometrioma with resolution of her symptoms. Precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of endometrial seeding during laparoscopic surgery. All tissues should be removed in an appropriate retrieval bag and the pneumoperitoneum should be deflated completely before removing ports to reduce the chimney effect of tissue being forced through the port site. The diagnosis should be considered in all women of reproductive age presenting with a painful port site scar.

Concepts: Surgery, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Menstrual cycle, Endometrium, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Endometriosis, Pneumoperitoneum