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Concept: Pleomorphic adenoma


Optimal surgery for pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid is controversial. In the present review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches after addressing the surgical pathology of the parotid pleomorphic adenoma capsule and its influence on surgery.

Concepts: Anatomical pathology, Pleomorphic adenoma


The p53 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR) pathways frequently are altered in sarcoma with complex genomics, such as leiomyosarcoma (LMS) or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). The scale of genetic abnormalities in these pathways remains unknown in angiosarcoma (AS).

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Soft tissue sarcoma, Types of cancer, Transcription factor, Sarcoma, Pleomorphic adenoma, Hemangiosarcoma


Primary multiple pleomorphic adenomas in a unilateral parotid gland in previously untreated patients is a rare finding, and little is known about the etiology and pathogenesis. Here, a highly unusual case of a primary multifocal pleomorphic adenoma consisting of 15 individual nodules is presented. It is shown that all nodes are clonally related and thus share a common cell of origin excluding an independent multifocal pathogenesis. Most likely, multifocal pleomorphic adenoma represents parasitic nodules that have been detached from a main nodule, which may have been the result of undisclosed trauma.

Concepts: Adenoma, Parotid gland, Warthin's tumor, Pleomorphic adenoma


This study compared extracapsular dissection (ED) vs superficial parotidectomy (SP) in the treatment of pleomorphic adenoma and benign parotid tumors.

Concepts: Benign tumor, Parotid gland, Warthin's tumor, Pleomorphic adenoma


The authors hypothesized that histogenetic classification of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) could account for de novo tumors and those with morphologic or molecular evidence (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 [PLAG1], high-mobility group AT hook 2 [HMGA2] rearrangement, amplification) of pleomorphic adenoma (PA).

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Allele, Anatomical pathology, Pleomorphic adenoma


Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of the submandibular gland is known to have a very low recurrence rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological and capsular characteristics of submandibular gland PA, looking for any differences between submandibular PA and the reported data for PA of the parotid gland as possible explanation for its low recurrence rate. We reviewed 72 submandibular gland PAs resected at our center between 2000 and 2016. Patient age ranged from 14 to 77 years (mean, 47.2). At least follow (range, 12 to 170 months; mean, 82), none of the 72 patients developed a local recurrence. Histologically, all of the tumors were encased by a complete and intact anatomical capsule (100%). Pseudopodia were detected in 11 (15.3%) and satellite nodules in 3 (4.2%) cases. The histological subtype (according to Seifert et al.) was classic (mixed) in 39 (54.2%), stroma-rich/myxoid in 18/72 (25%) and cellular in 15 (20.8%) cases. A complete rim of healthy pericapsular tissue encasing the tumor and its capsule was observed in only 23/72 (31.9%) cases. In conclusion, submandibular PAs are characterized by consistent presence of an intact anatomical capsule, infrequent occurrence of pseudopodia, a remarkably infrequent occurrence lower frequency of secondary satellite tumor nodules and a comparatively lower proportion of the fragile risky myxoid subtype. Despite the fact that surgery of the submandibular gland can frequently lead to focal capsular exposure, the aforementioned capsular characteristics of submandibular gland PA are probably responsible for the excellent oncologic results.

Concepts: Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Histology, Benign tumor, Parotid gland, Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland, Pleomorphic adenoma


To investigate the clinical and imaging features of primary and recurrent lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (LGPA), as well as lacrimal gland malignant epithelial tumours (LGMET).

Concepts: Oncology, Lacrimal gland, Pleomorphic adenoma



The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and IL-6 in patients with pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin’s tumor and acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Types of cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Parotid gland, Warthin's tumor, Pleomorphic adenoma


Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumour of the parotid gland, and can recur after excision. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma can be a challenge to treat, and has variable outcomes. The aim of this review was to summarise current thinking in its management, which may be helpful to clinical teams and could improve patients' health-related quality of life. We searched several online databases using the key terms pleomorphic adenoma, recurrent pleomorphic adenoma, parotid gland tumours, parotid surgery, radiotherapy and parotid pleomorphic adenoma, and parotid surgery outcomes. Information collected included sample size, recurrence rate, condition of the facial nerve, type of operation, adjuvant treatments associated with recurrence, and clinical outcome. We screened 2301 papers, of which 49 were eligible. There was no consensus among authors about management. There are few if any randomised studies, and so conclusions in most papers were based on coherent arguments. Pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid tend to recur after long intervals, with a propensity towards multifocal disease, and the risk of recurrence (which depends on the initial surgical technique) is higher when the initial operation was done at a young age, after enucleation, and if the initial margins were invaded. Published conclusions suggest that the accepted management varies from observation in selected cases to total parotidectomy with or without postoperative radiotherapy.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Surgery, Cranial nerves, Parotid gland, Facial nerve, Submandibular gland, Pleomorphic adenoma