Concept: Plastic surgery
Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscles (DRAM) is characterised by thinning and widening of the linea alba, combined with laxity of the ventral abdominal musculature. This causes the midline to “bulge” when intra-abdominal pressure is increased. Plastic surgery treatment for DRAM has been thoroughly evaluated, though general surgical treatments and the efficacy of physiotherapy remain elusive. The aim of this systematic literature review is to evaluate both general surgical and physiotherapeutic treatment options for restoring DRAM in terms of postoperative complications, patient satisfaction, and recurrence rates.
In plastic surgery, skin damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a multifactorial process that often occurs. Methane gas has been reported to be a new therapeutic gas for attenuating I/R injury. In this study, we assessed the effects of methane-rich saline (MRS) in regulating apoptosis on skin flap I/R injury.
Sushruta is considered the “Father of Plastic Surgery.” He lived in India sometime between 1000 and 800 BC, and is responsible for the advancement of medicine in ancient India. His teaching of anatomy, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies were of unparalleled luminosity, especially considering his time in the historical record. He is notably famous for nasal reconstruction, which can be traced throughout the literature from his depiction within the Vedic period of Hindu medicine to the era of Tagliacozzi during Renaissance Italy to modern-day surgical practices. The primary focus of this historical review is centered on Sushruta’s anatomical and surgical knowledge and his creation of the cheek flap for nasal reconstruction and its transition to the “Indian method.” The influential nature of the Sushruta Samhita, the compendium documenting Sushruta’s theories about medicine, is supported not only by anatomical knowledge and surgical procedural descriptions contained within its pages, but by the creative approaches that still hold true today.
Although many plastic surgeons perform autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) for breast reconstruction after oncologic surgery, it has not been established whether postoncologic lipofilling increases the risk of breast cancer recurrence. The authors assessed the risk of locoregional and systemic recurrence in patients who underwent lipofilling for breast reconstruction.
The premasseter space is a recognized, sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) soft-tissue space overlying the lower masseter immediately anterior to the parotid. The performance, safety, and effectiveness of composite face lifts are enhanced when the space is used. This has drawn attention to the need for better understanding of the premasseter anatomy above the space.
INTRODUCTION: Penile girth enhancement by the injection of Vaseline is an existing practice. Many cases develop severe complications that need surgery. AIM: To report on the reconstructive surgical solutions of the complications of Vaseline self-injection and the outcomes. To develop a modification of a one-step reconstruction method involving the use of pedicled scrotal flaps. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The complications and their surgical solutions were classified as regards severity and difficulty. The outcomes were observed and a newly introduced one-step surgical method was investigated. METHODS: Seventy-eight consecutive patients (87.2% of them with a history of imprisonment) were divided into three groups. In group A, aesthetic penile defects or phimosis caused by the Vaseline necessitated circumcision or local excision. In group B, the whole penile skin was involved, and total skin removal and two- or (a newly modified) one-step reconstructive surgery were performed. In group C, both the whole penile skin and the scrotum were involved: complete skin removal and skin grafting or skin pedicled flap transplantation were carried out. RESULTS: In five cases in group B, postoperative skin necrosis made a second operation necessary. There was one intraoperative urethral injury, where a urethral fistula developed and a second urethral reconstruction was performed. There was no major complication with the newly developed one-stage pedicled flap procedure. At the end of the therapy, all the cases were healed. All of the patients reported successful sexual intercourse after the operations and 91% were satisfied with the result. CONCLUSIONS: The complications depend mainly on the amount of Vaseline injected, the hygienic circumstances, and the personal tolerability. In the worst cases, only radical skin removal and skin transplantation can solve the problem. The newly developed one-step arterial branch-preserving scrotal skin flap reconstruction appears to be a suitable and cost-effective solution for these patients.
BACKGROUND: The sheer number of accepted inferior turbinoplasty techniques emphasizes the fact that there is no general agreement on which approach yields optimal results, nor are there data available that describes prevalent techniques in turbinate surgery among plastic surgeons. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify practice patterns among plastic surgeons who perform inferior turbinoplasty during rhinoplasty. METHODS: Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons were invited to participate in an anonymous, Internet-based survey containing questions related to personal preferences and outcomes in inferior turbinate surgery. RESULTS: A total of 534 members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons participated in the survey. Most (71.7%) trained in an independent plastic surgery program with prerequisite training in general surgery. More than half (50.6%) had more than 20 years of operative experience; only 15.2% reported performing greater than 40 rhinoplasties per year. The 5 most preferred inferior turbinate reduction techniques were outfracture of the turbinates (49.1%), partial turbinectomy (33.3%), submucous reduction via electrocautery (25.3%), submucous resection (23.6%), and electrocautery (22.5%). Fewer than 10% of the respondents reported the use of newer techniques such as radiofrequency thermal ablation (5.6%), use of the microdebrider (2.2%), laser cautery (1.1%), or cryosurgery (0.6%). Mucosal crusting and desiccation were the most frequently reported complications. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this survey provide insights into the current preferences in inferior turbinate reduction surgery. Plastic surgeons are performing more conventional methods of turbinate reduction rather than taking advantage of the many of the more novel technology-driven methods.
The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Two distinct anatomical regions and functions are the focus of interest when managing facial palsy: (1) reanimation of the eyelids and (2) reconstruction of the smile. This review will focus on the treatment of ocular manifestations of facial palsy. The principles of eyelid rehabilitation will be presented along with a discussion of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility, complications, and clinical outcome of consecutive free trapezius flap transfers in 20 dogs and a wallaby. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 20) and 1 wallaby METHODS: Medical records of 20 dogs and 1 wallaby that had free trapezius flap transfers were evaluated retrospectively for indications, date of transfer, site of flap relocation, flap composition (myocutaneous, muscular, myoosseus), recipient artery and veins, flap ischemia times, surgery time, antithrombotic strategies used, intra- and postoperative complications related to the flap, hospitalization, in hospital duration after flap transfer, and outcome. RESULTS: Free flap transfers (16 muscle, 4 myocutaneous, 1 myoosseus) were used to treat traumatic soft tissue loss (13), neoplasm excision (2), osteomyelitis (4), and soft palate reconstruction (2); all flaps survived. Anti-thrombotic therapy was used in all cases although strategies varied. Postoperative complications were infrequent, generally of low severity, and primarily included donor site seroma formation and infection. CONCLUSIONS: Free trapezius flap was successfully used in 21 consecutive cases for a wide variety of reconstructive techniques with good, functional long-term outcome.
The use of autologous adipose tissue harvested through liposuction techniques for soft-tissue augmentation has become commonplace among cosmetic and reconstructive surgeons alike. Despite its longstanding use in the plastic surgery community, substantial controversy remains regarding the optimal method of processing harvested lipoaspirate before grafting. This evidence-based review builds on prior examinations of the literature to evaluate both established and novel methods for lipoaspirate processing.