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Concept: Plant hormones

171

Jasmonates are phytohormones derived from oxygenated fatty acids that regulate a broad range of plant defense and developmental processes. In Arabidopsis, hypocotyl elongation under various light conditions was suppressed by exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Moreover, this suppression by MeJA was particularly effective under red light condition. Mutant analyses suggested that SCF(COI1)-mediated proteolysis was involved in this function. However, MeJA action still remained in the coi1 mutant, and (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile, a well-known active form of jasmonate, had a weaker effect than MeJA under the red light condition, suggesting that unknown signaling pathway are present in MeJA-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. EMS mutant screening identified two MeJA-insensitive hypocotyl elongation mutants, jasmonate resistance long hypocotyl 1 (jal1) and jal36, which had mutations in the phytochrome B (PHYB) gene. These analyses suggested that inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by jasmonates is enhanced under red light in phyB dependent manner.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Mutant, Plant physiology, Plant hormones, Jasmonate, Jasmonic acid, Methyl jasmonate, Wild Child

39

Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss.

Concepts: Protein, Gene expression, Transcription, Enzyme, Plant hormones, Sulforaphane, Broccoli, Glucosinolate

28

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an economically important medicinal plant known to yield picrosides which have high medicinal value. Out of these picroside I and picroside II are major picrosides associated with various bioactivities. The present work analyzed the expression of various genes of the picrosides biosynthesis pathway in different tissues of the plant in relation to the picrosides content. Eight full-length cDNA sequences namely, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (2.317 Kb), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (1.767 Kb), 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase (1.674 Kb), 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (1.701 Kb), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (1.545 Kb), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (2.241 Kb), isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (987bp) and geranyl diphosphate synthase (1.434 Kb), were cloned to full-length followed by expression analysis of ten genes vis-à-vis picrosides content analysis. Picrosides accumulated maximum in leaf tissue followed by rhizome and root, and similar was the pattern of expression of all the ten genes. The genes responded to the modulators of the terpenoid biosynthesis. Picrosides accumulation was enhanced by application of hydrogen peroxide and abscisic acid, whereas methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid treatment decreased picrosides content.

Concepts: Oxygen, Gene expression, Metabolism, Terpene, Terpenoid, Plant hormones, Terpenes and terpenoids, Geranyl pyrophosphate

28

Flower opening in Iris (Iris×hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of hormones other than ethylene in pedicel and ovary elongation and flower opening. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and the cytokinins benzyladenine (N6-benzyladenine, BA) and zeatin did not affect opening. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were slightly inhibitory, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) was without effect. Flower opening was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA(3)), but two inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis (4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate, AMO-1618; ancymidol) did not change opening. The auxins indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) strongly promoted elongation and opening. An inhibitor of auxin transport (2,3,5-triodobenzoic acid, TIBA) and an inhibitor of auxin effects [α-(p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid; PCIB] inhibited elongation and opening. The data suggest that endogenous auxins are among the regulators of the pedicel and ovary elongation and thus of flower opening in Iris.

Concepts: Plant hormones, Plant hormone, Abscission, Flower, Auxin, Gibberellic acid, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid, 6-Benzylaminopurine

27

The demand for increased crop productivity and the predicted challenges related to plant survival under adverse environmental conditions have renewed the interest in research in root biology. Various physiological and genetic studies have provided ample evidence in support of the role of plant growth regulators in root development. The biosynthesis and transport of auxin and its signaling play a crucial role in controlling root growth and development. The univocal role of auxin in root development has established it as a master regulator. Other plant hormones, such as cytokinins, brassinosteroids, ethylene, abscisic acid, gibberellins, jasmonic acid, polyamines and strigolactones interact either synergistically or antagonistically with auxin to trigger cascades of events leading to root morphogenesis and development. In recent years, the availability of biological resources, development of modern tools and experimental approaches have led to the advancement of knowledge in root development. Research in the areas of hormone signal perception, understanding network of events involved in hormone action and the transport of plant hormones has added a new dimension to root biology. The present review highlights some of the important conceptual developments in the interplay of auxin and other plant hormones and associated downstream events affecting root development.

Concepts: Root, Plant hormones, Plant hormone, Abscisic acid, Abscission, Ethylene, Auxin, Jasmonic acid

27

The tiller of rice (Oryza sativa L.), which determines the panicle number per plant, is an important agronomic trait for grain production. Ascorbic acid (Asc) is a major plant antioxidant that serves many functions in plants. l-Galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH, EC 1.3.2.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of Asc biosynthesis in plants. Here we show that the GLDH-suppressed transgenic rices, GI-1 and GI-2, which have constitutively low (between 30% and 50%) leaf Asc content compared with the wild-type plants, exhibit a significantly reduced tiller number. Moreover, lower growth rate and plant height were observed in the Asc-deficient plants relative to the trait values of the wild-type plants at different tillering stages. Further examination showed that the deficiency of Asc resulted in a higher lipid peroxidation, a loss of chlorophyll, a loss of carotenoids, and a lower rate of CO(2) assimilation. In addition, the level of abscisic acid was higher in GI-1 plants, while the level of jasmonic acid was higher in GI-1 and GI-2 plants at different tillering stages. The results we presented here indicated that Asc deficiency was likely responsible for the promotion of premature senescence, which was accompanied by a marked decrease in photosynthesis. These observations support the conclusion that the deficiency of Asc alters the tiller number in the GLDH-suppressed transgenics through promoting premature senescence and changing phytohormones related to senescence.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Antioxidant, Plant, Plant hormones, Plant hormone, Chlorophyll, Rice, Oryza sativa

25

Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm) but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI) driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Genetics, Molecular biology, Plant hormones, Plant hormone, Abscisic acid

25

Abiotic stresses, such as salinity, heavy metals and drought, are some of the most devastating factors hindering sustainable crop production today. Plants use their own defensive strategies to cope with the adverse effects of these stresses, via the regulation of the expression of essential phytohormones, such as gibberellins (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonates (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene (ET). However, the efficacy of the endogenous defensive arsenals of plants often falls short if the stress persists over an extended period. Various strategies are developed to improve stress tolerance in plants. For example, silicon (Si) is widely considered to possess significant potential as a substance which ameliorate the negative effects of abiotic stresses, and improves plant growth and biomass accumulation. This review aims to explain how Si application influences the signaling of the endogenous hormones GA, SA, ABA, JA and ET during salinity, wounding, drought and metal stresses in crop plants. Phytohormonal cross talk plays an important role in the regulation of induced defences against stress. However, detailed molecular and proteomic research into these interactions is needed in order to identify the underlying mechanisms of stress tolerance that is imparted by Si application and uptake.

Concepts: Oxygen, Seed, Plant hormones, Plant hormone, Abscisic acid, Abscission, Salicylic acid, Heavy metal music

13

Being continuously exposed to variable environmental conditions, plants produce phytohormones to react quickly and specifically to these changes. The phytohormone ethylene is produced in response to multiple stresses. While the role of ethylene in defense responses to pathogens is widely recognized, recent studies in arabidopsis and crop species highlight an emerging key role for ethylene in the regulation of organ growth and yield under abiotic stress. Molecular connections between ethylene and growth-regulatory pathways have been uncovered, and altering the expression of ethylene response factors (ERFs) provides a new strategy for targeted ethylene-response engineering. Crops with optimized ethylene responses show improved growth in the field, opening new windows for future crop improvement. This review focuses on how ethylene regulates shoot growth, with an emphasis on leaves.

Concepts: Plant, Fern, Plant hormones, Plant hormone, Ethylene, Environmental science, Auxin, Crop

5

It is well established that plant hormones such as auxins, cytokinins (CKs), and abscisic acid (ABA) not only govern important plant physiological traits but are key players in plant-microbe interactions. A poorly appreciated fact, however, is that both microbes and animals produce and perceive plant hormones and their mimics. Moreover, dietary plant hormones impact on human physiological process such as glucose assimilation, inflammation, and cell division. This leads us to wonder whether plant hormones could ensure functions in microbes per se as well as in animal-microbe interactions. We propose here and explore the hypothesis that plant hormones play roles in animal-microbiota relationships, with consequences for human health.

Concepts: Protein, Cell, Disease, Human, Nutrition, Eukaryote, Plant hormones, Plant hormone