Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Planning


The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

Concepts: Operations research, Planning, Energy conservation, Load balancing, Scheduling algorithm, Energy management system, Least slack time scheduling, Processor affinity


Proper management of fecal sludge has significant positive health and environmental externalities. Most research on managing onsite sanitation so far either simulates the costs of, or the welfare effects from, managing sludge in situ in pit latrines. Thus, designing management strategies for onsite rural sanitation is challenging, because the actual costs of transporting sludge for treatment, and sources for financing these transport costs, are not well understood.

Concepts: Management, Design management, Hygiene, Planning, Plan, Logistics, Latrine, Externality


To analyze data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 21 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to examine patterns of interpregnancy intervals, unmet need, pregnancy risk, and family planning method use and method mix among women 0-23months postpartum.

Concepts: Family, Childbirth, Birth control, Family planning, Abortion, Planning, Sex education


To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts.

Concepts: Prediction, Futurology, Future, Life expectancy, England, Forecasting, Wales, Planning


The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, describe and assess the potential effectiveness of strategies to respond to issues of vaccine hesitancy that have been implemented and evaluated across diverse global contexts.

Concepts: Evaluation, Planning


Economic saving is an elaborate behavior in which the goal of a reward in the future directs planning and decision-making in the present. Here, we measured neural activity while subjects formed simple economic saving strategies to accumulate rewards and then executed their strategies through choice sequences of self-defined lengths. Before the initiation of a choice sequence, prospective activations in the amygdala predicted subjects' internal saving plans and their value up to two minutes before a saving goal was achieved. The valuation component of this planning activity persisted during execution of the saving strategy and predicted subjects' economic behavior across different tasks and testing days. Functionally coupled amygdala and prefrontal cortex activities encoded distinct planning components that signaled the transition from saving strategy formation to execution and reflected individual differences in saving behavior. Our findings identify candidate neural mechanisms for economic saving in amygdala and prefrontal cortex and suggest a novel planning function for the human amygdala in directing strategic behavior toward self-determined future rewards.

Concepts: Present, Brain, Future, Limbic system, Strategy, Forecasting, Planning, Plan


Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is an emergency with a high mortality rate; survivors have high rates of intestinal failure. We performed a prospective study to assess a multidisciplinary and multimodal management approach, focused on intestinal viability.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Rates, Management, Project management, Planning, Mortality displacement, Plan, Mesenteric ischemia


OBJECTIVE:Recognition of the complexity of asthma management has led to the development of asthma treatment guidelines that include the recommendation that all pediatric asthma patients receive a written asthma action plan. We assessed the readability, suitability, and characteristics of asthma action plans, elements that contribute to the effectiveness of action plan use, particularly for those with limited literacy.METHODS:This was a descriptive study of 30 asthma action plans (27 state Department of Health (DOH)-endorsed, 3 national action plans endorsed by 6 states). Outcome measures: (1) readability (as assessed by Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Forcast), (2) suitability (Suitability Assessment of Materials [SAM], adequate: ≥0.4; unsuitable: <0.4), (3) action plan characteristics (peak flow vs symptom-based, symptoms, recommended actions).RESULTS:Mean (SD) overall readability grade level was 7.2 (1.1) (range = 5.7-9.8); 70.0% were sixth-grade level or higher. Mean (SD) suitability score was 0.74 (0.14). Overall, all action plans were found to be adequate, although 40.0% had an unsuitable score in at least 1 factor. The highest percent of unsuitable scores were found in the categories of layout/typography (30.0%), learning stimulation/motivation (26.7%), and graphics (13.3%). There were no statistically significant differences between the average grade level or SAM score of state DOH developed action plans and those from or adapted from national organizations. Plans varied with respect to terms used, symptoms included, and recommended actions.CONCLUSIONS:Specific improvements in asthma action plans could maximize patient and parent understanding of appropriate asthma management and could particularly benefit individuals with limited literacy skills.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Management, Gunning fog index, Readability tests, Readability, Flesch–Kincaid readability test, Planning


This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author explores personal resilience as an important individual characteristic that affects team functioning and thus organizational adaptability to change. The important role of resilience in strategic leadership for change is presented along with suggestions for evaluating and developing resilience.

Concepts: Management, Strategic management, Positive psychology, Leadership, Strategy, Project management, Planning, Plan


This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPET. Techniques for monitoring motion in real time by use of surrogates are reviewed. Treatment planning for various motion-management treatment delivery strategies is discussed, including choice of planning image, treatment field margins and dose calculation. Imaging techniques displaying motion in the treatment room for pre-treatment as well as real-time imaging for localization and verification are covered, and their use for various motion-management treatment delivery techniques is discussed. Use of motion management for different treatment sites-breast, lung and other sites-is elaborated, and gating, breath-hold and beam tracking strategies are described. Suggestions are given for breast and lung for practicable protocols for routine clinical use of motion management, including decision strategies. Finally, a perspective of the future of motion management in photon radiation therapy is given.

Concepts: Electron, Medicine, Cancer, Ionizing radiation, Radiation therapy, Radiation oncology, Planning, Plan