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Concept: Pisum


The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer’s markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality.

Concepts: Evaluation, Pea, Fabaceae, Seed, Faboideae, Pisum


Divergent wild and endemic peas differ in hybrid sterility in reciprocal crosses with cultivated pea depending on alleles of a nuclear ‘speciation gene’ involved in nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Pea, Fabaceae, Faboideae, Pisum, Sweet pea


Two fractions from pea (Pisum sativum L.), protein isolate (PPI) and dietary fiber (PF), were newly produced by extraction-fractionation method and characterized in terms of particle size distribution and structural morphology using SEM. The newly produced PPI and PF fractions were processed into pasta-like sheets with varying protein to fiber ratios (100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 50/50, respectively) using high temperature compression molding. We studied protein polymerization, molecular structure and protein-fiber interactions, as well as mechanical performance and cooking characteristics of processed PPI-PF blends. Bi-modal particle size distribution and chemical composition of the PPI and PF fractions influenced significantly the physicochemical properties of the pasta-like sheets. Polymerization was most pronounced for the 100 PPI, 90/10 and 80/20 PPI-PF samples as studied by SE-HPLC, and polymerization decreased with addition of the PF fraction. The mechanical properties, as strength and extensibility, were likewise the highest for the 100 PPI and 90/10 PPI-PF blends, while the E-modulus was similar for all the studied blends (around 38 MPa). The extensibility decreased with the increasing amount of PF in the blend. The highest amounts of β-sheets were found in the pasta-like sheets with high amounts of PPI (100, 90 and 80%), by FT-IR. An increase in PF fraction in the blend, resulted into the high amounts of unordered structures as observed by FT-IR, as well as in an increase in the molecular scattering distances observed by SAXS. The water uptake increased and cooking loss decreased with increased proportions of the PF fraction, and the consistency of 10 min cooked pasta-like sheets were alike al dente texture. The new knowledge obtained in this study on the use of extraction-fractionation method to produce novel PPI and PF fractions for developing innovative high nutritious food can be of a great importance. The obtained knowledge on the pea protein and fiber processing behaviour could greatly contribute to a better control of functional properties of various temperature-processed products from yellow pea.

Concepts: Nutrition, Particle size distribution, Pea, Fabaceae, Vegetable, Cooking, Edible legumes, Pisum


Formaldehyde is a widespread pollutant of soil near roads including agricultural lands. Non-monotonic changes (hormesis and paradoxical effects) in chlorophyll (Ch) and carotenoid (Car) contents, the lipid peroxidation (LP) rate in plant leaves and growth parameters (GP) of plants can be caused by various pollutants. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response phenomenon, characterised by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. The remaining types of non-monotonic responses are classified as paradoxical effects. While most authors who have studied formaldehyde and plants considered gaseous exposure to shoots, the effect of this pollutant in soil solution has been poorly examined. Thus, we studied the non-monotonic changes in Ch and Car contents, LP rate and GP in pea (Pisum sativum L.) upon exposure to formaldehyde in solution, at a wide range of sublethal concentrations from 0.063 × 10-2to 0.16 g L-1. With formaldehyde exposure, LP and Ch contents had paradoxical effects (triphasic and multiphase changes, accordingly), while Car level did not change and GP exhibited a hormetic response. The date showed that pea parameters display diverse types of non-monotonic responses upon exposure to the same formaldehyde concentrations. High pollutant concentrations (0.08-0.16 g L-1) increased LP and significantly decreased GP (to 2.3-2.5 times compared to the control), while the Ch content was increased. Lower concentrations (<0.08 g L-1) caused a moderate deviation in all parameters from the control (not more than 62%) for hormesis and paradoxical effects.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Antioxidant, Plant, Pollution, Pea, Fabaceae, Annual plant, Pisum


A model system of 10-12 day-old, two-branched (2-B) pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Adagumsky) seedlings was used to study the roles of endogenous auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs) in the interaction between the shoots. The IAA export activity (IEA) from shoots was two times higher in 1-B plants with one shoot removed than in the 2-B plants, while tZ-type CK contents in xylem sap were four times more in the 1-B plants than in 2-B plants. Exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine introduced into the vascular stream of one shoot enhanced its IEA. Therefore, xylem-CK appears to control both growth and IEA from branches. In the hypocotyls of 1-B and 2-B plants IAA contents were equal in both cases, while the levels of tZ-type CKs were different. This data does not agree with the well supported role for auxin in down-regulating CK content. The observed paradox may be explained by assuming that a steady state IAA level in the hypocotyls is feedback-regulated via xylem-CK which controls the delivery of IAA from shoots. As a result, the IAA hypocotyl level is most likely maintained at a threshold level below which a decrease in auxin content can switch on CK synthesis that will elevate xylem-CK levels, thereby stabilizing the level of IAA in the hypocotyl. Therefore, our results suggest that correlative inhibition in the 2-B pea system is a function of an IAA/CK feedback loop, where CK essentially acts as a second messenger for IAA.

Concepts: Interaction, Pea, Fabaceae, Feedback, Seed, Plant morphology, Flowering plant, Pisum


The study is aimed to investigate the impact of silver nanoparticles on germination of Pisum sativum pea seeds. The influence of synthesized silver nanoparticles on root length and percentage of germinated seeds was revealed. It was found that nanosilver treatment agents do not affect the germination of pea seeds negatively at low concentrations. Also, the treatment of pea seeds with silver nanoparticles provide a significant positive effect on the root length of pea seeds.

Concepts: Nanotechnology, Gold, Pea, Fabaceae, Fruit, Seed, Germination, Pisum


Boron (B) tolerance has been identified as a key target for field pea improvement. Screening for B tolerance in the field is problematic due to variability in space and time, and robust B molecular markers are currently unavailable in field pea. There has been recent progress in developing protocols that can accelerate the life cycle of plants to enable rapid generation turnover in single seed descent breeding programs. A robust B screening protocol that can be fully integrated within an accelerated single seed descent system could lead to rapid identification and introgression of B tolerance into field pea genotypes. Integration with an accelerated single seed descent system requires: (1) screening under artificially lit, temperature-controlled conditions; (2) capacity to use immature precociously germinated seed (PGS); (3) recovery of lines without significant time penalty; and (4) good correlation with results from established screening protocols.

Concepts: Time, General relativity, Pea, Fabaceae, Fruit, Seed, Legume, Pisum


In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%) while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R2=0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

Concepts: Nutrition, Pea, Fabaceae, Vegetable, Edible legumes, Pisum, Pea soup


Frost stress is one of the major abiotic stresses causing seedling death and yield reduction in winter pea. To improve the frost tolerance of pea, field evaluation of frost tolerance was conducted on 672 diverse pea accessions at three locations in Northern China in three growing seasons from 2013 to 2016 and marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance were performed with 267 informative SSR markers in this study. Sixteen accessions were identified as the most winter-hardy for their ability to survive in all nine field experiments with a mean survival rate of 0.57, ranging from 0.41 to 0.75. Population structure analysis revealed a structured population of two sub-populations plus some admixtures in the 672 accessions. Association analysis detected seven markers that repeatedly had associations with frost tolerance in at least two different environments with two different statistical models. One of the markers is the functional marker EST1109 on LG VI which was predicted to co-localize with a gene involved in the metabolism of glycoproteins in response to chilling stress and may provide a novel mechanism of frost tolerance in pea. These winter-hardy germplasms and frost tolerance associated markers will play a vital role in marker-assisted breeding for winter-hardy pea cultivar.

Concepts: Statistics, Pea, Fabaceae, Seed, Flowering plant, Faboideae, Winter, Pisum


The present study was carried out to know the sorption mechanism of Pb (II) and Ni (II) in aqueous solution using pea peels under the influence of sorbent dose, pH, temperature, initial metal ion concentration and contact time. SEM and FTIR were used for characterization of pea peels. The study showed that solution pH affects sorption process and the optimum pH for Pb (II) was 6.0 while for that of Ni (II) was 7.0. Pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to be the most suitable one to explain the kinetic data not only due to high value of R(2) (>0.99) but also due to the closeness of the experimental sorption capacity values to that of calculated sorption capacity values of pseudo second order kinetic model. It can be seen from the results that Freundlich isotherm explains well the equilibrium data (R(2)>0.99). Sorption capacity of pea peels was 140.84 and 32.36 for Pb (II) and Ni (II) mg g(-1) respectively. The positive value of ΔH° and negative values of ΔG° suggest that sorption of Pb (II) and Ni (II) onto pea peels is an endothermic and spontaneous process respectively.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Thermodynamics, Metal, Pea, Fabaceae, Aqueous solution, Pisum