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Concept: Pie


The fair division of a surplus is one of the most widely examined problems. This paper focuses on bargaining problems with fixed disagreement payoffs where risk-neutral agents have reached an agreement that is the Nash-bargaining solution (NBS). We consider a stochastic environment, in which the overall return consists of multiple pies with uncertain sizes and we examine how these pies can be allocated with fairness among agents. Specifically, fairness is based on the Aristotle’s maxim: “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally, in proportion to the relevant inequality”. In this context, fairness is achieved when all the individual stochastic surplus shares which are allocated to agents are distributed in proportion to the NBS. We introduce a novel algorithm, which can be used to compute the ratio of each pie that should be allocated to each agent, in order to ensure fairness within a symmetric or asymmetric NBS.

Concepts: Game theory, Ratio, Agent, Ratio distribution, Nash bargaining game, Bargaining, Pie, Cooperative games


Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2-18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

Concepts: Nutrition, Egg, Butter, Meat, Saturated fat, Carbohydrate, Livestock, Pie


The ‘taste of food’ plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20±5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22±3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p=0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p=0.03) and vegetables (p=0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p=0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p=0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p=0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake.

Concepts: Nutrition, Food, Body mass index, Taste, Flavor, Potato, Restaurant, Pie


Wound dehiscence and infection may arise when the skin around the foot or ankle is closed under tension after a surgical incision or trauma. Two cases where a piecrusting technique, using small transdermal incisions made in the surrounding skin similar to the holes in a pie crust, are presented and a literature review of the technique has been performed. The multiple small stab incisions perpendicular to the line of tension have enabled skin closure without tension and have healed with minimal scarring.

Concepts: Scar, Wound healing, Foot, Skin, Vector space, Closed set, Closure, Pie