Concept: Photochemical reaction
The photodegradation and biotic transformation of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC), tramadol (TRA) and venlafaxine (VEN), and of the metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) in the aquatic environmental have been investigated. Photodegradation experiments were carried out using a medium pressure Hg lamp (laboratory experiments) and natural sunlight (field experiments). Degradation of the target compounds followed a first-order kinetic model. Rates of direct photodegradation (light absorption by the compounds itself) at pH 6.9 were very low for all of the target analytes (⩽0.0059h(-1) using a Hg lamp and ⩽0.0027h(-1) using natural sunlight), while rates of indirect photodegradation (degradation of the compounds through photosensitizers) in river water at pH 7.5 were approximately 59 (LDC), 5 (TRA), 8 (VEN), 15 (ODT) and 13 times (ODV) higher than the rates obtained from the experiments in ultrapure water. The accelerated photodegradation of the target compounds in natural water is attributed mainly to the formation of hydroxyl radicals through photochemical reactions. Biotic (microbial) degradation of the target compounds in surface water has been shown to occur at very low rates (⩽0.00029h(-1)). The half-life times determined from the field experiments were 31 (LDC), 73 (TRA), 51 (VEN), 21 (ODT) and 18h (ODV) considering all possible mechanisms of degradation for the target compounds in river water (direct photodegradation, indirect photodegradation and biotic degradation).
Commercially available santonin was used to synthesize seven sesquiterpene lactones using a facile strategy that involved a high-yielding photochemical reaction. Three natural products from Artemisia gorgonum were synthesized in good yields, and in the case of two compounds, absolute configurations were determined from X-ray quality crystals. The structures previously reported for these compounds were revised. Sesquiterpene lactones were tested using the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay, and the most active compounds were assayed in standard target species. seco-Guaianolide (4) showed higher phytotoxic activities than the known herbicide Logran. This high activity could be due to the presence of a cyclopentenedione ring. These results suggest that compound 4 should be involved in defense of A. gorgorum, displaying a wide range of activities that allow proposing them as new leads for development of a natural herbicide model with a seco-guaianolide skeleton.
Studies examining the photochemical reactivity of CpRu(PPh3)2Cl and CpRu(PPh3)2Me towards the two electron donor ligands PEt3, C2H4, DMSO, the CH bond activatable reagents tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and pyridine, and the SiH bond activatable reagents HSiEt3 and HSi(Me)2CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2) are presented. Broadband UV irradiation of CpRu(PPh3)2Cl leads to the formation of mono-substitution products such as CpRu(PPh3)(PEt3)Cl which are inert to further photochemical reaction, although thermally bis-substituted products such as CpRu(PEt3)2Cl can be formed. Room temperature irradiation of the related complex CpRu(PPh3)2Me with L = PEt3, C2H4, and DMSO also produces CpRu(PPh3)(L)Me. However, when these reactions are followed by in situ laser irradiation (325 nm source) at low temperature, three solvent activated isomers (ortho, meta and para) of CpRu(PPh3)2(C6H4Me) are detected in toluene in addition to η(1)- and η(3)-coordinated benzyl species. Furthermore, photolysis in THF leads to both the C-D bond activation product CpRu(PPh3)2(OC4D7) and the labile coordination complex CpRu(PPh3)(THF)Me. Now CH4 rather than CH3D is liberated which suggests the involvement of an orthometallated species. The photochemically driven reaction of CpRu(PPh3)2Me with HSiEt3 at 198 K generates CpRu(κ(2)-2-C6H4PPh2)(SiEt3)H and thereby confirms a role for an orthometallated complex is this process. Irradiation in cyclohexane produces the known orthometallated complex, CpRu(κ(2)-2-C6H4PPh2)(PPh3), and CH4 in accordance with this reactivity.
The photocycle kinetics of PsChR2, among the most highly efficient light-gated cation channels and the most blue-shifted channelrhodopsin, was studied by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy in the 340-650 nm range and in the 100 ns to 3 s time window. Global exponential fitting of the time-dependence of spectral changes revealed six lifetimes: 0.60 μs, 5.3 μs, 170 μs, 1.4 ms, 6.7 ms, and 1.4 s. The sequential intermediates derived for a single cycle scheme based on these lifetimes were found to contain mixtures of K, L, M, O and P molecular states, named in analogy to photointermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. The photochemistry is described by the superposition of two independent parallel photocycles. The analysis revealed that 30% of the photoexcited receptor molecules followed Cycle 1 through the K, M, O, and P states, while 70% followed Cycle 2 through the K, L, M, and O states. The recovered state, R, is spectrally close, but not identical to the dark state on the seconds time scale. The two-cycle model of this high efficiency ChR opens new perspectives in understanding the mechanism of channelrhodopsin function.
Styrenes represent a challenging class of substrates for current radical trifluoromethylation and hydrotrifluoromethylation methods due to a myriad of potential side reactions. Herein, we describe the development of mild, selective and broadly applicable photocatalytic trifluoromethylation and hydrotrifluoromethylation protocols for these challenging substrates. The methods use fac-Ir(ppy)3 , visible light and inexpensive CF3 I and can be applied to a diverse set of vinylarene substrates. The use of continuous-flow photochemical reaction conditions allowed to reduce the reaction time and increase the reaction selectivity.
After more than a decade, it is still unknown whether the plasmon-mediated growth of silver nanostructures can be extended to the synthesis of other noble metals, as the molecular mechanisms governing the growth process remain elusive. Herein, we demonstrate the plasmon-driven synthesis of gold nanoprisms and elucidate the details of the photochemical growth mechanism at the single-nanoparticle level. Our investigation reveals that the surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone preferentially adsorbs along the nanoprism perimeter and serves as a photochemical relay to direct the anisotropic growth of gold nanoprisms. This discovery confers a unique function to polyvinylpyrrolidone that is fundamentally different from its widely accepted role as a crystal-face-blocking ligand. Additionally, we find that nanocrystal twinning exerts a profound influence on the kinetics of this photochemical process by controlling the transport of plasmon-generated hot electrons to polyvinylpyrrolidone. These insights establish a molecular-level description of the underlying mechanisms regulating the plasmon-driven synthesis of gold nanoprisms.
Solar radiation absorbed by marine phytoplankton can follow three possible paths. By simultaneously measuring the quantum yields of photochemistry and chlorophyll fluorescence in situ, we calculate that, on average, ~60% of absorbed photons are converted to heat, while only 35% are directed toward photochemical water splitting and the rest are re-emitted as fluorescence. The spatial pattern of fluorescence yields and lifetimes strongly suggests that photochemical energy conversion is physiologically limited by nutrients. Comparison of in situ fluorescence lifetimes with satellite retrievals of solar induced fluorescence yields suggest that the mean values of the latter are generally representative of the photophysiological state of phytoplankton, however the signal to noise ratio is unacceptably low in extremely oligotrophic regions, which comprise 30% of the open ocean.
The [2 + 2] photocycloaddition is undisputedly the most important and most frequently used photochemical reaction. In this review, it is attempted to cover all recent aspects of [2 + 2] photocycloaddition chemistry with an emphasis on synthetically relevant, regio-, and stereoselective reactions. The review aims to comprehensively discuss relevant work, which was done in the field in the last 20 years (i.e., from 1995 to 2015). Organization of the data follows a subdivision according to mechanism and substrate classes. Cu(I) and PET (photoinduced electron transfer) catalysis are treated separately in sections 2 and 4 , whereas the vast majority of photocycloaddition reactions which occur by direct excitation or sensitization are divided within section 3 into individual subsections according to the photochemically excited olefin.
The role of vibrational coherence-concerted vibrational motion on the excited-state potential energy surface-in the isomerization of retinal in the protein rhodopsin remains elusive, despite considerable experimental and theoretical efforts. We revisited this problem with resonant ultrafast heterodyne-detected transient-grating spectroscopy. The enhanced sensitivity that this technique provides allows us to probe directly the primary photochemical reaction of vision with sufficient temporal and spectral resolution to resolve all the relevant nuclear dynamics of the retinal chromophore during isomerization. We observed coherent photoproduct formation on a sub-50 fs timescale, and recovered a host of vibrational modes of the retinal chromophore that modulate the transient-grating signal during the isomerization reaction. Through Fourier filtering and subsequent time-domain analysis of the transient vibrational dynamics, the excited-state nuclear motions that drive the isomerization reaction were identified, and comprise stretching, torsional and out-of-plane wagging motions about the local C11=C12 isomerization coordinate.
Coupling photochemistry with flow microreactors enables novel synthesis strategies with higher efficiencies compared to batch systems. Improving the reproducibility and understanding of the photochemical reaction mechanisms requires quantitative tools such as chemical actinometry. However, the choice of actinometric systems which can be applied in microreactors is limited, due to their short optical pathlength in combination with a large received photon flux. Furthermore, actinometers for the characterization of reactions driven by visible light between 500 and 600 nm (e.g. photosensitized oxidations) are largely missing. In this paper, we propose a new visible-light actinometer which can be applied in flow microreactors between 480 and 620 nm. This actinometric system is based on the photoisomerization reaction of a diarylethene derivative from its closed to the open form. The experimental protocol for actinometric measurements is facile and characterized by excellent reproducibility and we also present an analytical estimation to calculate the photon flux. Furthermore, we propose an experimental methodology to determine the average pathlength in microreactors using actinometric measurements. In the context of a growing research interest on using flow microreactors for photochemical reactions, the proposed visible-light actinometer facilitates the determination of the received photon flux and average pathlength in confined geometries.