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Concept: Phenolic compounds in wine

156

In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Thermodynamics, Vitamin C, Drying, Resveratrol, Phenolic compounds in wine, By-product, Grape seed oil

28

Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. Extracts of seeds with a fresh weight of 125, 700, 1,550 and 2,050 mg (stages 1-4, respectively) were analysed. The phenolic compounds present in highest concentrations in developing and mature seeds (stages 3 and 4) were flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ols existed as monomers of epicatechin and catechin and as procyanidins. Type B procyanidins were major components and varied from dimers to pentadecamer. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, along with the N-phenylpropernoyl-L-amino acids, N-caffeoyl-L-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-L-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-3-hydroxytyrosine (clovamide) and N-coumaroyltyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, were present in stage 3 and 4 seeds. Other purine alkaloids, such as theophylline and additional methylxanthines, did not occur in detectable quantities. Flavan-3-ols were the only components to accumulate in detectable quantities in young seeds at developmental stages 1 and 2.

Concepts: Caffeine, Catechin, Flavonoid, Phenolic compounds in wine, Alkaloid, Xanthine, Theobromine, Theobroma cacao

28

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with gradient elution and diode-array detection was developed to quantify free phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, salycilic, elagic and trans-cinnamic), flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin and quercetin) and juglone in walnut leaves. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 × 4.6 mm) and detection was conducted at three different wavelengths (254, 278 and 300 nm) according to the absorption maxima of the analyzed compounds. Validation procedures were conducted and the method was proven to be precise, accurate and sensitive. The developed method has been applied to analyze walnut leaves samples from nine different cultivars, with the same agricultural, geographical and climatic conditions. The experimental results revealed high concentrations of myricetin, catechin hydrate and rutin, and low concentrations of quercetin and epicatechin aglycones. Ellagic acid was established as the dominating phenolic acid of walnut leaves, followed by trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids. Juglone content varied between 44.55 and 205.12 mg/100 g fresh weight. Significant differences were detected among cultivars for the concentration levels of phenolics.

Concepts: Chromatography, Catechin, Quercetin, Flavonoid, Caffeic acid, Phenols, Phenolic compounds in wine, Myricetin

28

The ability of grape seed extracts to bind to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and α-amylase was studied by fluorescence quenching of protein intrinsic fluorescence and nephelometry. The influence of grape seed ripeness on astringency was also evaluated. From the spectra obtained, the modified Sterm-Volmer (K(app)) and the bimolecular quenching constants were calculated. Results showed that grape seed extracts had good affinity for proteins. The association strength of tannin-protein interactions varied with changes in tannin structure associated with the degree of ripeness affecting the binding/quenching process. In all cases studied, higher values of K(app) were obtained in samples at harvest which have greater ability to bind to proteins than have samples at post-veraison time. Nephelometric assays show the same trend as do fluorescence quenching studies. A possible explanation for this is that, as seeds ripen, their tannins increase in molecular mass, which relates to an increase in hydrophobicity of the molecules, and this increases protein affinity. However, that is contrary to the reported decrease in astringency of grape seeds during maturity. This indicates that tannin-protein interactions are not the only explanation for the complex sensations of astringency of grape seeds.

Concepts: Molecular biology, Molecule, Serum albumin, Fruit, Catechin, Bovine serum albumin, Tannin, Phenolic compounds in wine

27

The phenolic compounds are the main phytochemical constituents of the bark of Trichilia catigua and are commonly used for medicinal purposes. An HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of phenolic compounds (procyanidin B2 (PB2), epicatechin (EPC), chinchonains Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, catechin, and chrologenic acid) in T. catigua extract was developed and validated. A suitable chromatographic system was selected, which uses a gradient elution with methanol/ACN (75:25), and water both with 0.05% TFA, as mobile phase, column Luna, 280 nm, and flow 0.4 mL/min. Validation of the analytical method was based on the parameters: linearity, precision, LODs and LOQs, accuracy, robustness, and stability. The method showed linearity for PB2 and EPC, in the range 10-120 μg/mL with good correlation coefficients (>0.996). For precision, the repeatability ranged from 1.89 to 3.23%, and the values for accuracy for PB2 and EPC were 95 and 89%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs for PB2 were 1.36 and 4.12 μg/mL, and for EPC were 2.18 and 6.61 μg/mL, respectively. The method was robust under the conditions employed. The proposed method could be employed for quality assessment of T. catigua, as well as pharmaceutical products.

Concepts: Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Gas chromatography, Catechin, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Phenolic compounds in wine, Paper chromatography

27

Three new phenolic compounds, yunnanensins A-C (1-3), together with fourteen known ones (4-17), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Parakmeria yunnanensis. The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Several compounds showed weak anti-HIV-1 activity.

Concepts: Phenols, Phenolic compounds in wine

27

Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass, used as substrates for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals often contain high amounts of phenolic compounds inhibiting the production microbiota. Quantification of these inhibitor compounds may help to understand possible difficulties in bioprocessing and further the development of more efficient, robust and tolerable processes. A separation method based on capillary electrophoresis with UV detection was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 10 phenolic compounds that may have inhibitor properties. Intraday relative standard deviations were less than 0.7% for migration times and between 2.6% and 6.4% for peak areas. Interday relative standard deviations were less than 3.0% for migration times and between 5.0% and 7.2% for peak areas. The method was applied to demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was able to decrease the concentrations of vanillin, coniferyl aldehyde, syringaldehyde, acetoguaiacone and cinnamic acid during the cultivation, whereas the concentrations of phenols increased.

Concepts: Gel electrophoresis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces, Phenols, Vanillin, Phenolic compounds in wine, Robust statistics

26

Resveratrol and oxyresveratrol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds with various bioactivities, but their uses in cosmetics have been partly limited by their chemical instabilities. This study was performed to examine the anti-melanogenic effects of the acetylated derivatives from resveratrol and oxyresveratrol. Resveratrol and oxyresveratrol were chemically modified to triacetyl resveratrol and tetraacetyl oxyresveratrol, respectively. The acetylated compounds were less susceptible than the parent compounds to oxidative discoloration. The acetylated compounds inhibited the activities of tyrosinases less than parent compounds in vitro, but they were as effective at cellular melanogenesis inhibition, indicating bioconversion to parent compounds inside cells. Supporting this notion, the parent compounds were regenerated when the acetylated compounds were digested with cell lysates. Although resveratrol and triacetyl resveratrol inhibited tyrosinase activity less effectively than oxyresveratrol and tetraacetyl oxyresveratrol in vitro, they inhibited cellular melanogenesis more effectively. This discrepancy was explained by strong inhibition of tyrosinase expression by resveratrol and triacetyl resveratrol. Experiments using a reconstituted skin model indicated that resveratrol derivatives can affect melanin synthesis and cell viability to different extents. Collectively, this study suggests that acetylated derivatives of resveratrol have great potential as anti-melanogenic agents for cosmetic use in terms of efficacy, safety, and stability.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Chemistry, Melanin, Quercetin, Resveratrol, Phenolic compounds in wine, Melanocyte, Tyrosinase

22

Garlic causes a strong garlic breath that may persist for almost a day. Therefore, it is important to study deodorization techniques for garlic breath. The volatiles responsible for garlic breath include diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl sulfide. After eating garlic, water (control), raw, juiced or heated apple, raw or heated lettuce, raw or juiced mint leaves, or green tea were consumed immediately. The levels of the garlic volatiles on the breath were analyzed from 1 to 60 min by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Garlic was also blended with water (control), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), rosemarinic acid, quercetin or catechin, and the volatiles in the headspace analyzed from 3 to 40 min by SIFT-MS. Raw apple, raw lettuce, and mint leaves significantly decreased all of the garlic breath volatiles in vivo. The proposed mechanism is enzymatic deodorization where volatiles react with phenolic compounds. Apple juice and mint juice also had a deodorizing effect on most of the garlic volatiles but were generally not as effective as the raw food, probably because the juice had enzymatic activity but the phenolic compounds had already polymerized. Both heated apple and heated lettuce produced a significant reduction of diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan. The presence of phenolic compounds that react with the volatile compounds even in the absence of enzymes is the most likely mechanism. Green tea had no deodorizing effect on the garlic volatile compounds. Rosmarinic acid, catechin, quercetin, and PPO significantly decreased all garlic breath volatiles in vitro. Rosmarinic acid was the most effective at deodorization.

Concepts: Functional groups, Garlic, Catechin, Quercetin, Phenols, Enzymes, Phenolic compounds in wine, Volatile

21

The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives (230.5 ± 13.5 mg/g) with smaller amounts of salvianolic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and flavanones. Head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique, that was applied to characterize the volatile fraction of spearmint, identified molecules belonging to different chemical classes, such as p-cymene, isopiperitone, and piperitone, dihydroedulan II, menthone, p-cymen-8-ol, and β-linalool. This comprehensive phytochemical analysis can be useful to test the authenticity of this product rich in rosmarinic acid and other phenolics, and when assessing its biological properties. It may also be applied to other plant-derived food extracts and beverages containing a broad range of phytochemical compounds.

Concepts: Alcohol, Carbon dioxide, Mass spectrometry, Phenols, Phenolic compounds in wine, Mentha, Mentha spicata