Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Phase IV


Evaluation of Xagrid® Efficacy and Long-term Safety, a Phase IV, prospective, non interventional study performed in 13 European countries enrolled high risk essential thrombocythemia patients treated with cytoreductive therapy. Primary objectives were safety and pregnancy outcomes. Of 3721 registered patients, 3649 received cytoreductive therapy. At registration, 3611 were receiving: anagrelide (Xagrid®) (n=804), other cytoreductive therapy (n=2666), anagrelide + other cytoreductive therapy (n=141). Median age was 56 vs 70 years for anagrelide vs other cytoreductive therapy. Event rates (patients with events/100 patient years) were, for total thrombosis 1.62 vs 2.06, venous thrombosis 0.15 vs 0.53. Anagrelide was more commonly associated with hemorrhage (0.89 vs 0.43), especially with anti-aggregatory therapy (1.35 vs 0.33) and myelofibrosis (1.04 vs 0.30). Other cytoreductive therapies were more associated with acute leukemia (AL) (0.28 vs 0.07) and other malignancies (1.29 vs 0.44). Post-hoc multivariate analyses identified increased risk for thrombosis with prior thrombohemorrhagic events, age ≥65, cardiovascular risk factors, or hypertension. Risk factors for transformation were prior thrombohemorrhagic events, age ≥65, time since diagnosis, and platelet count increase. Safety analysis reflected published data and no new safety concerns for anagrelide were found. Live births occurred in 41/54 pregnancies (76%). ( #NCT00567502).

Concepts: Scientific method, Blood, Observational study, Platelet, Multivariate statistics, Essential thrombocytosis, Phase IV, Anagrelide


Asthma is an increasing pathology with poor compliance. Achievement of control is possible but under intensive treatment. In this setting, fluticasone/salmeterol association delivered by dry powder inhalers is a valuable and proved option. A prospective, parallel, open-label, phase IV, multicentre non-inferiority study was conducted to determine therapeutic similarity between 2 different inhalers: Generic DPI and Diskus®, which both deliver a fluticasone/salmeterol association (CAS 80474-14-2/CAS 89365-50-4). A 103 uncontrolled asthmatic patients were randomly assigned in 2 groups, Generic (G) and Diskus® (D), and received the association for 18 weeks through the appropriate device. They were evaluated according to Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire and GINA/NIH guidelines. To demonstrate non-inferiority, the estimation of the Relative Risk between the Global Score Rate per group with its 95% confidence interval was calculated and compared against a non-inferiority margin obtained from a previous study. The Global Score Rate was 82% for G Group and 83% for D Group. The RR was 1.0124 (95% CI: 0.847-1.210). The margin set at 0.832 was not reached by the lower 95% CI (z=-2.097; p=0.018) pointing out non-inferiority. The results have demonstrated non-inferiority between groups. Thus, the 2 products are therapeutically similar.

Concepts: Asthma, Relative risk, Dry powder inhaler, Inhaler, Nebulizer, Phase IV, Salmeterol, Fluticasone/salmeterol


Phase IV trials are often used to investigate drug safety after approval. However, little is known about the characteristics of contemporary phase IV clinical trials and whether these studies are of sufficient quality to advance medical knowledge in pharmacovigilance. We aimed to determine the fundamental characteristics of phase IV clinical trials that evaluated drug safety using the registry data.

Concepts: Health care, Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Informed consent, Avicenna,, Phase IV


Registry to Evaluate Novantrone Effects in Worsening Multiple Sclerosis (RENEW) was a 5-year, phase IV study in which the safety of Mitoxantrone was monitored in a patient cohort from the United States (US). The objective of the study was to evaluate the long-term safety profile of Mitoxantrone in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis (PRMS), and worsening relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Concepts: Patient, United States, Multiple sclerosis, U.S. state, Phase, American football, Phase IV, Mitoxantrone



We thank Drs Malvehy and Puig for their comments on the article; our responses follow. Drs Malvehy and Puig correctly note that the primary endpoint is complete clearance at the end of the first treatment course. Here, the rates are 34.5% for IngMeb and 23.5% for DS. It is not clear why Malvehy and Puig believe that a comparison at the same time point would be better. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Comparison, Randomized controlled trial, English-language films, All rights reserved, Actinic keratosis, Copyright, Phase IV, Rofecoxib


We read with attention the recent paper by Stockfleth et al1 on the efficacy and safety of Ingenol Mebutate 0.015% gel (IngMb) vs. diclofenac sodium 3% gel (DS) for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). Regarding this interesting study, we would like to address some comments to the authors.In this study, the primary endpoint was complete clearance of AKs (AKCLEAR100) at end of first treatment course (Week8, IngMeb; Week17, DS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Attention, Randomized controlled trial, Face, All rights reserved, Actinic keratosis, Copyright, Phase IV, Rofecoxib


To provide detailed data on the tolerability and safety of octagam(®) 10%, a ready-to-use intravenous immunoglobulin, in a subgroup of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) involved in an integrated analysis of post-authorisation safety surveillance (PASS) studies.

Concepts: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Phase IV


This prospective, noninterventional study is the first phase IV trial designed to evaluate trabectedin in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma in real-life clinical practice across Europe. To be included in the study, patients must have received more than or equal to one cycle of trabectedin and be currently on treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival as defined by investigators. The secondary endpoints included objective response rate, disease control rate, time to progression and the growth modulation index (GMI), overall survival, and an assessment of the cancer-related symptoms and safety. A total of 218 patients from 41 European centers were evaluated. Patients received a median of six cycles per patient, mostly on an outpatient basis (n=132; 60.6%). The median progression-free survival was 5.9 months, with 70 and 49% of patients free from progression at 3 and 6 months after treatment, respectively. Three (1.4%) patients achieved a complete response and 55 (25.2%) patients achieved a partial response for an objective response rate of 26.6%. A total of 85 (39.0%) patients had disease stabilization for a disease control rate of 65.6%. The median GMI was 0.8, with 5.1 and 38.8% of patients with a GMI of greater than 1.1 to less than 1.33 and greater than or equal to 1.33, respectively. The median overall survival was 21.3 months. Febrile neutropenia (2.3% of patients), neutropenia, nausea, and pneumonia (1.4% each) were the most common trabectedin-related grade ¾ serious adverse drug reactions. Trabectedin confers clinically meaningful long-term benefits to patients with multiple soft tissue sarcoma histotypes, being either comparable or better than those observed previously in clinical trials, and with a manageable safety profile.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Soft tissue sarcoma, Adverse drug reaction, Soft tissue, Good clinical practice, Phase IV, Creative Commons


The impact of cardiovascular complications on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been clearly established. Using EQ5D utility data from SAVOR-TIMI 53, a large phase IV trial of saxagliptin versus placebo, we quantified the impact of cardiovascular and other major events on HRQoL.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, The Canon of Medicine, Phase IV