SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Pharmacoeconomics

185

Syphilis in pregnancy imposes a significant global health and economic burden. More than half of cases result in serious adverse events, including infant mortality and infection. The annual global burden from mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and $309 million in medical costs. Syphilis screening and treatment is simple, effective, and affordable, yet, worldwide, most pregnant women do not receive these services. We assessed cost-effectiveness of scaling-up syphilis screening and treatment in existing antenatal care (ANC) programs in various programmatic, epidemiologic, and economic contexts.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infant, Fetus, Obstetrics, Gestational age, Pharmacoeconomics, Global health

172

Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted.

Concepts: Malaria, Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Sahara, Syphilis, Pharmacoeconomics, Southern Africa

171

In Uganda, isoniazid plus ethambutol is used for 6 months (6HE) during the continuation treatment phase of new tuberculosis (TB) cases. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using isoniazid plus rifampicin for 4 months (4HR) instead of 6HE. We compared the impact of a continuation phase using 6HE or 4HR on total cost and expected mortality from the perspective of the Ugandan national health system.

Concepts: Health economics, Costs, Tuberculosis, World Health Organization, Pharmacoeconomics, Tuberculosis treatment, Isoniazid, Ethambutol

163

The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country.

Concepts: Health economics, Epidemiology, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Pharmacoeconomics, Global health, Quality-adjusted life year, Disability-adjusted life year, Disease burden

49

Sodium consumption is a modifiable risk factor for higher blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed voluntary sodium reduction goals targeting processed and commercially prepared foods. We aimed to quantify the potential health and economic impact of this policy.

Concepts: Health economics, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Blood, Food, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Cost-utility analysis, Pharmacoeconomics

30

Recently, the Massachusetts Group Insurance Commission (GIC) prioritized research on the implications of a clause expressly prohibiting the denial of health insurance coverage for transgender-related services. These medically necessary services include primary and preventive care as well as transitional therapy.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, United States, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Cost-utility analysis, Pharmacoeconomics, Massachusetts

29

A sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax in Mexico has been effective in reducing consumption of SSBs, with larger decreases for low-income households. The health and financial effects across socioeconomic groups are important considerations for policy-makers. From a societal perspective, we assessed the potential cost-effectiveness, health gains, and financial impacts by socioeconomic position (SEP) of a 20% SSB tax for Australia.

Concepts: Health economics, Health insurance, Pharmacoeconomics, Single-sideband modulation

29

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves symptoms and survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the devices used to deliver it are costly and can impose a significant burden to the relatively constrained health budgets of middle-income countries such as Brazil.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Public health, Health, Epidemiology, Population health, Pharmacoeconomics

28

Identifying clinical scenarios that maximize the cost-effectiveness of biological treatments can lead to optimized health care cost-saving and clinical effectiveness from a society’s perspective.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Public health, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Economics, Pharmacoeconomics

27

Trastuzumab improves survival in HER2+ breast cancer patients, with some evidence of adverse cardiac side effects. Current recommendations are to give adjuvant trastuzumab for one year or until recurrence, although trastuzumab treatment for only 9 or 10 weeks has shown similar survival rates to 12-month treatment. We present here a multi-arm joint analysis examining the relative cost-effectiveness of different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab.

Concepts: Health economics, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, Trastuzumab, HER2/neu, Pharmacoeconomics