Concept: Personal identity
Objective. The objective of this study was to explore patients' experiences of RA daily life while on modern treatments.Methods. The methods of this study comprised semi-structured interviews with 15 RA patients, analysed using inductive thematic analysis.Results. Four themes suggest patients experience life with RA along a continuum from RA in the background to the foreground of their lives, underpinned by constant actions to maintain balance. Living with RA in the background shows patients experience continuous, daily symptoms, which they mediate through micromanagement (mediating the impact of RA on daily life), while learning to incorporate RA into their identity (redefining me). RA moving into the foreground shows patients experience fluctuating symptoms (unwelcome reminders) that may or may not lead to a flare (trying to make sense of fluctuation). Dealing with RA in the foreground shows how patients attempt to manage RA flares (trying to regain control) and decide to seek medical help only after feeling they are losing control. Patients employ a stepped approach to self-management (mediation ladder) as symptoms increase, with seeking medical help often seen as the last resort. Patients seek to find a balance between managing their fluctuating RA and living their daily lives.Conclusion. Patients move back and forth along a continuum of RA in the background vs the foreground by balancing self-management of symptoms and everyday life. Clinicians need to appreciate that daily micromanagement is needed, even on current treatment regimes. Further research is needed to quantify the level and impact of daily symptoms and identify barriers and facilitators to seeking help.
Although it is well accepted that working memory (WM) is intimately related to consciousness, little research has illuminated the liaison between the two phenomena. To investigate this under-explored nexus, we used an imagery monitoring task to investigate the subjective aspects of WM performance. Specifically, in two experiments, we examined the effects on consciousness of (a) holding in mind information having a low versus high memory load, and (b) holding memoranda in mind during the presentation of distractors (e.g., visual stimuli associated with a response incompatible with that of the memoranda). Higher rates of rehearsal (conscious imagery) occurred in the high load and distractor conditions than in comparable control conditions. Examination of the temporal properties of the rehearsal-based imagery revealed that, across subjects, imagery events occurred evenly throughout the delay. We hope that future variants of this new imagery monitoring task will reveal additional insights about WM, consciousness, and action control.
This paper introduces a model of indoor soundscape evaluation, which is based on the results of listening experiments on household appliances. The model reveals, among other things, permanently changing action and attention processes and learning effects which occur in everyday settings. However, what are the relevant situations which we want to reconstruct in our experiments? When do people perceive and evaluate sounds in their everyday life like they do under test conditions? This theoretical knowledge is essential for the estimation of ecological validity of soundscape experiments in general. Hence, this contribution deals with approaches to determine meaningful real-life situations. The interviews held in the course of the studies show that many subjects construct extremely critical context situations while they are assessing sounds. These contexts are often not representative for these peoples' reality. Many participants, in fact, state that they no longer consciously perceive and evaluate the sounds of the appliances in their personal life. Decreasing attention over time can lead to a great influence of the first impression on subsequent perceptions and cognitions (primacy effect). Furthermore, the effect of memory processes on retrospective sound evaluations will be discussed.