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Concept: Peritoneum

171

In 114 cases of the transverse colon isolated from cadavers (50 male, 64 female), anatomical examinations of the arterial system of the colon were performed. Arteriograms were obtained after dissecting and contrasting the colonic vessels with Mixobar contrast. In one case, on arteriography of the colon with its mesentery isolated from a 55-year-old male cadaver, a rare anatomical variant was found. The third mesenteric artery originated directly from the aorta-halfway between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and ascended obliquely in the direction of the hepatic flexure of the colon. Supply area of the artery was typical for the middle colic branch of the superior mesenteric artery: the distal segment of the ascending colon and the transverse colon. Such a variation, although very rare, may have particular impact on diagnosis and even the method and range of surgery.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Transverse colon, Artery, Inferior mesenteric artery, Middle colic artery, Peritoneum, Colon, Superior mesenteric artery

171

Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Concepts: Hemodialysis, Kidney, Peritoneum, Erythropoietin, Artificial kidney, Nephrology, Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease

168

Intussusception is uncommon in adults. To our knowledge, synchronous colocolic intussusceptions have never been reported in the literature. Here we described the case of a 59-year-old female of synchronous colocolic intussusceptions presenting as acute abdomen that was diagnosed by CT preoperatively. Laparotomy with radical right hemicolectomy and sigmoidectomy was undertaken without reduction of the invagination due to a significant risk of associated malignancy. The final diagnosis was synchronous adenocarcinoma of proximal transverse colon and sigmoid colon without lymph nodes or distant metastasis. The patient had an uneventful recovery. The case also emphasizes the importance of thorough exploration during surgery for bowel invagination since synchronous events may occur.

Concepts: Large intestine, Sigmoid colon, Lymph node, Colectomy, Ascending colon, Peritoneum, Cancer, Medical terms

163

Home-based renal replacement therapy (RRT) [peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD)] offers independent quality of life and clinical advantages compared to conventional in-center hemodialysis. However, follow-up may be less complete for home dialysis patients following a change in care settings such as post hospitalization. We aim to implement a Home Dialysis Virtual Ward (HDVW) strategy, which is targeted to minimize gaps of care.

Concepts: Renal dialysis, Peritoneum, Nephrology, Chronic kidney disease, Dialysis, Hemodialysis

148

Intrauterine contraceptive device is the most common method of reversible contraception in women. The intrauterine contraceptive device can perforate the uterus and can also migrate into pelvic or abdominal organs. Perforation of the urinary bladder by an intrauterine contraceptive device is not common. In West Africa, intravesical migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device has been rarely reported. In this report, we present a case of an intrauterine contraceptive device migration into the urinary bladder of a 33 year old African woman at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana.

Concepts: Kidney, Africa, Peritoneum, Pelvis, Uterus, Urinary bladder, Birth control, Intrauterine device

147

It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.

Concepts: Peritoneum, Bile, In vivo, In vitro, Glycogen, Salvadora persica, Hepatocyte, Liver

65

The need for sensitive, robust, portable, and inexpensive biosensing platforms is of significant interest in clinical applications for disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the point-of-care (POC) settings. Rapid, accurate POC diagnostic assays play a crucial role in developing countries, where there are limited laboratory infrastructure, trained personnel, and financial support. However, current diagnostic assays commonly require long assay time, sophisticated infrastructure and expensive reagents that are not compatible with resource-constrained settings. Although paper and flexible material-based platform technologies provide alternative approaches to develop POC diagnostic assays for broad applications in medicine, they have technical challenges integrating to different detection modalities. Here, we address the limited capability of current paper and flexible material-based platforms by integrating cellulose paper and flexible polyester films as diagnostic biosensing materials with various detection modalities through the development and validation of new widely applicable electrical and optical sensing mechanisms using antibodies and peptides. By incorporating these different detection modalities, we present selective and accurate capture and detection of multiple biotargets including viruses (Human Immunodeficieny Virus-1), bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), and cells (CD4(+) T lymphocytes) from fingerprick volume equivalent of multiple biological specimens such as whole blood, plasma, and peritoneal dialysis effluent with clinically relevant detection and sensitivity.

Concepts: ELISA, Staphylococcus, Peritoneum, Protein, Dialysis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacteria

31

Conventional two-dimensional differentiation from pluripotency fails to recapitulate cell interactions occurring during organogenesis. Three-dimensional organoids generate complex organ-like tissues; however, it is unclear how heterotypic interactions affect lineage identity. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing to reconstruct hepatocyte-like lineage progression from pluripotency in two-dimensional culture. We then derive three-dimensional liver bud organoids by reconstituting hepatic, stromal, and endothelial interactions, and deconstruct heterogeneity during liver bud development. We find that liver bud hepatoblasts diverge from the two-dimensional lineage, and express epithelial migration signatures characteristic of organ budding. We benchmark three-dimensional liver buds against fetal and adult human liver single-cell RNA sequencing data, and find a striking correspondence between the three-dimensional liver bud and fetal liver cells. We use a receptor-ligand pairing analysis and a high-throughput inhibitor assay to interrogate signalling in liver buds, and show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) crosstalk potentiates endothelial network formation and hepatoblast differentiation. Our molecular dissection reveals interlineage communication regulating organoid development, and illuminates previously inaccessible aspects of human liver development.

Concepts: Peritoneum, Organ, Regeneration, Bile, Hepatocyte, Glycogen, Gallbladder, Liver

28

Abstract Background: Malaria remains a major global health concern in developing regions of the world. Homeopathy, a holistic system of medicine, has a lot to offer in protecting against malaria. Methods: In the present study, antimalarial efficacy of combination of two homeopathic drugs Chelidonium 30 and nosode 30 has been evaluated in vivo against Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infection using Peters 4-day test. Biochemical assays have been performed to assess the levels of hepatic and renal function biomarkers upon drug treatment using diagnostic kits. Results: The combination of the drugs demonstrated considerable in vivo antimalarial activity with chemosuppression of 91.45% on day 7. The combination also significantly (p<0.0005) enhanced the mean survival time of mice which was calculated to be 22.5±6.31 days, whereas it was 8.55±0.83 days in infected control. The increase in levels of the liver function marker enzymes tested in serum of treated mice were significantly less (p<0.0005) than those observed in infected control on day 10. The serum urea and creatinine used for assessment of renal sufficiency were slightly elevated above normal, but were statistically significant (p<0.0005) as compared to infected control. Conclusions: The study establishes the effectiveness of the combination against P. berghei in vivo along with the safety of the drugs to the liver and kidney functions of the host.

Concepts: Offal, Statistics, Peritoneum, Blood urea nitrogen, Urea, Kidney, Homeopathy, Liver

28

The full Mini Nutritional Assessment (full-MNA) and short-form MNA (MNA-SF) are simple and effective nutrition screening scales, but their usefulness for identifying patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD) at risk of protein-calorie malnutrition (PEM) has not been investigated.

Concepts: Dialysis, Malnutrition, Peritoneum, Obesity, Nutrition