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Concept: Peripheral vascular disease

146

Both vascular function and structure are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vascular function and structure of a leg artery in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Peripheral vascular disease, Cardiovascular diseases

137

Antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel is recommended to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, clopidogrel efficacy has not been adequately studied in this patient population. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of cilostazol therapy on platelet reactivity among PAD patients on clopidogrel.

Concepts: Blood, Coronary artery disease, Cardiovascular disease, Effectiveness, Peripheral vascular disease, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Aspirin

126

The National Health Service Health Check program in England is the largest cardiovascular risk assessment and management program in the world. We assessed the effect of this program on modelled risk of cardiovascular disease, individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease, prescribing of relevant medications and diagnosis of vascular disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Risk, Cardiovascular disease, Peripheral vascular disease, Management, Risk management, Risk assessment

96

Background Peripheral artery disease is considered to be a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis with associated adverse cardiovascular and limb events. Data from previous trials have suggested that patients receiving clopidogrel monotherapy had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those receiving aspirin. We wanted to compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet agent, in patients with peripheral artery disease. Methods In this double-blind, event-driven trial, we randomly assigned 13,885 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease to receive monotherapy with ticagrelor (90 mg twice daily) or clopidogrel (75 mg once daily). Patients were eligible if they had an ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.80 or less or had undergone previous revascularization of the lower limbs. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of adjudicated cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary safety end point was major bleeding. The median follow-up was 30 months. Results The median age of the patients was 66 years, and 72% were men; 43% were enrolled on the basis of the ABI and 57% on the basis of previous revascularization. The mean baseline ABI in all patients was 0.71, 76.6% of the patients had claudication, and 4.6% had critical limb ischemia. The primary efficacy end point occurred in 751 of 6930 patients (10.8%) receiving ticagrelor and in 740 of 6955 (10.6%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.13; P=0.65). In each group, acute limb ischemia occurred in 1.7% of the patients (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.33; P=0.85) and major bleeding in 1.6% (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.43; P=0.49). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease, ticagrelor was not shown to be superior to clopidogrel for the reduction of cardiovascular events. Major bleeding occurred at similar rates among the patients in the two trial groups. (Funded by AstraZeneca; EUCLID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01732822 .).

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Cardiovascular disease, Stroke, Peripheral vascular disease, Cardiovascular system, Aspirin

47

Evidence from large, randomized, controlled peripheral artery disease trials reporting long-term outcomes using drug-coated balloons (DCBs) is limited. Previously, the DCB showed favorable 1-year outcomes compared with conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), yet durability of the treatment effect with DCBs remains unknown.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Cardiology, Peripheral vascular disease, Angioplasty, Balloon

45

Although considered a cornerstone therapy, the efficacy and safety of aspirin for prevention of ischemic events in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) remains uncertain. Thus, we aimed to evaluate aspirin use in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with PVD.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Peripheral vascular disease

38

To investigate the relationship between oral health and incident hospitalisation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), ischaemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and all-cause mortality.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Blood vessel, Peripheral vascular disease, Ischemia

34

Although fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, its association with peripheral artery disease (PAD) is less certain. We, thus, sought to characterize F&V intake and investigate the association between F&V consumption and presence of PAD in a large community sample.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Heart, Peripheral vascular disease, Heart disease, Artery, Coronary circulation, The Association

28

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at high risk of cardiovascular events and benefit from aggressive secondary prevention; however, changes in the use of cardioprotective medications after incident diagnosis of PAD have not been well described.

Concepts: Medical terms, Coronary artery disease, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Peripheral vascular disease, Prevention, High school

25

Patients with peripheral artery disease are at risk for critical limb ischemia and amputation. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products is increased and predictive for coronary and cerebrovascular events in several high cardiovascular risk groups. We hypothesized that accumulation of tissue advanced glycation end products, measured by skin autofluorescence (SAF), predicts amputation in patients with peripheral artery disease.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Peripheral vascular disease, Cardiovascular system