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Concept: Pennsylvania


Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) have deleterious cardiovascular effects. Restrictions on their use were initiated in 11 New York State (NYS) counties between 2007 and 2011. The US Food and Drug Administration plans a nationwide restriction in 2018. Public health implications of TFA restrictions are not well understood.

Concepts: Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Hudson River, Ontario, Myocardial infarction, New York, New York City


A new study highlights how schedule changes among inpatient providers on the upper floors can impact crowding and boarding in the ED. Using Lean Six Sigma (LSS) management techniques, investigators at Penn State Hershey Children’s Hospital in Hershey, PA, discovered that by adding an extra inpatient rounding team, discharge times could be accelerated, resulting in improved throughput without increasing length of stay or readmission rates. Data show that the scheduling adjustments enabled the hospital to slash 90 minutes off discharge times when compared with usual care. The scheduling changes enabled the hospital to discharge 45% more patients per day without increasing length-of-stay or readmission rates. To make the schedule changes, a core group of seven inpatient physicians needed to agree to work an extra two or three “on service” weeks per year. Investigators acknowledge that implementing this type of intervention requires culture change, which can be very difficult initially.

Concepts: Pennsylvania State University, Hospital, Lean manufacturing, Process capability, Motorola, Physician, Six Sigma, Pennsylvania



Recent analyses suggest that increases in rates of childhood obesity have plateaued nationally and may be decreasing among certain populations and communities, including Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We examined 7 years of data, including 3 years not previously reported, to assess recent trends in major demographic groups.

Concepts: Bariatrics, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Childhood obesity, Diabetes mellitus, Nutrition, Demography, Obesity


To describe variability in the burden of firearm violence by race, income, and place in an urban context.

Concepts: Pennsylvania, Urban design, Philadelphia


Older age is associated with increased risk of pregnancy-associated stroke (PAS). Data are limited on age-specific incidence ratios of PAS compared with stroke risk in nonpregnant women.

Concepts: Vermont, U.S. state, Pennsylvania, Hudson River, New Jersey, Virginia, New York, New York City


In the version of this article originally published, one of the two authors with the name Wei Zhao was omitted from the author list and the affiliations for both authors were assigned to the single Wei Zhao in the author list. In addition, the ORCID for Wei Zhao (Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA) was incorrectly assigned to author Wei Zhou. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

Concepts: Medicine, Maryland, Philadelphia, Zhao Wei, Mass, Obesity, Body mass index, Pennsylvania


Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ-cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality.

Concepts: Climate, Pennsylvania, Management, City, London, New York, New York City, 21st century


Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance. Despite vast amounts of research in this area key gaps remain, including what comprises PA in football, and methods to minimise research-practitioner gaps. The aim of this study was to develop a model of the football match system in order to better describe and understand the components of football performance. Such a model could inform the design of new PA methods.

Concepts: Understanding, Pennsylvania, Mathematics, Derivative, Systems engineering, System, Integral


This retrospective analysis explored prognostic factors associated with a benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) disease course at baseline and over the 4-year follow-up.

Concepts: U.S. state, Pennsylvania, Hudson River, New Jersey, Virginia, Multiple sclerosis, New York, New York City