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Concept: Pennines


The implementation of the ‘Removal of the Spare Room Subsidy’ in April 2013, commonly known as the ‘bedroom tax’, affects an estimated 660 000 working age social housing tenants in the UK, reducing weekly incomes by £12-£22. This study aimed to examine the impact of this tax on health and wellbeing in a North East England community in which 68.5% of residents live in social housing.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Europe, England, Decolonization, Rooms, North East England, Pennines


Recent studies have shown up to 6 % of rivers in England and Wales to be impacted by discharges from abandoned metal mines. Despite the large extent of impacts, there are still many areas where mine water impact assessments are limited by data availability. This study provides an overview of water quality, trace element composition and flux arising from one such area; the Yorkshire Pennine Orefield in the UK. Mine drainage waters across the orefield are characterised by Ca-HCO(3)-SO(4)-type waters, with moderate mineralization (specific electrical conductance: 160-525 μS cm(-1)) and enrichment of dissolved Zn (≤2003 μg L(-1)), Ba (≤971 μg L(-1)), Pb (≤183 μg L(-1)) and Cd (≤12 μg L(-1)). The major ion composition of the waters reflects the Carboniferous gritstone and limestone-dominated country rock, the latter of which is heavily karstified in parts of the orefield, while sulphate and trace element enrichment is a product of the oxidation of galena, sphalerite and barite mineralization. Contaminant flux measurements at discharge sites highlight the disproportionate importance of large drainage levels across the region, which generally discharge into first-order headwater streams. Synoptic metal loading surveys undertaken in the Hebden Beck sub-catchment of the river Wharfe highlight the importance of major drainage levels to instream baseflow contamination, with diffuse sources from identifiable expanses of waste rock becoming increasingly prominent as river flows increase.

Concepts: Water, United Kingdom, England, River Wharfe, Hebden, North Yorkshire, Yorkshire, Pennines, Wharfedale


The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England.

Concepts: United Kingdom, England, Pharmacy, Health science, Internet, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Northern Europe, Pennines


Parenteral nutrition (PN) is widely used to provide nutritional support to patients with inaccessible or inadequate length of gut or non-functioning gut. The objective was to compare practice in PN administration to results of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) report, ‘A Mixed Bag’, and to establish whether good practice was being followed within this part of the UK.

Concepts: Nutrition, Patient, Eating, Parenteral nutrition, United Kingdom, Diet, England, Pennines


To investigate a potential outbreak of high-level azithromycin resistant (HL-AziR) gonococcal infections diagnosed in eight patients attending a sexual health clinic in Leeds, North England, between November 2014 and March 2015.

Concepts: Hospital, Proteobacteria, England, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria, Gonorrhea, Pennines, York


Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) provides opportunities for improved cost savings, but in the UK, implementation is patchy and a variety of service models are in use. The slow uptake in the UK and Europe is due to a number of clinical, financial and logistical issues, including concern about patient safety. The measurement of patient experience data is commonly used to inform commissioning decisions, but these focus on functional aspects of services and fail to examine the relational aspects of care. This qualitative study examines patients' experiences of OPAT.

Concepts: Focus group, United Kingdom, Europe, Qualitative research, England, Participant observation, Northern Europe, Pennines


Synthetic fentanyl analogues are highly potent opioid drugs which have no pharmaceutical use in humans. We detected the synthetic fentanyl analogues; carfentanil, butyryl fentanyl, fluorobutyrylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, and alfentanil as well as fentanyl itself in 25 cases in early 2017. There have been no previous reports of synthetic fentanyl deaths in the United Kingdom (UK).

Concepts: United Kingdom, Opioid, Europe, England, English language, Scotland, Fentanyl, Pennines


This study investigates seasonal concentrations and fluxes of nitrogen (N) species under stormflow and baseflow conditions in the peat dominated Kinder River catchment, south Pennines, UK. This upland region has experienced decades of high atmospheric inorganic N deposition. Water samples were collected fortnightly over one year, in combination with high resolution stormflow sampling and discharge monitoring. The results reveal that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) constitutes ~54% of the estimated annual total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) flux (14.3kgNha(-1)yr(-1)). DON cycling in the catchment is influenced by hydrological and biological controls, with greater concentrations under summer stormflow conditions. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DON are closely coupled, with positive correlations observed during spring, summer and autumn stormflow conditions. A low annual mean DOC:DON ratio (<25) and elevated dissolved inorganic N concentrations (up to 63μmoll(-1) in summer) suggest that the Kinder catchment is at an advanced stage of N saturation. This study reveals that DON is a significant component of TDN in peatland fluvial systems that receive high atmospheric inputs of inorganic N.

Concepts: Oxygen, Soil, Organic compound, Hydrology, Drainage basin, Saturation, Autumn, Pennines


There are few data on the use of hospital services by centenarians living in the UK. In the present study, we recorded the frequency, nature and outcomes of hospital admissions in centenarians in an area of North-East England.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Europe, England, English language, Radio, Northern Ireland, North East England, Pennines


Some of you may not know it, but you live in ManSheffLeedsPool. This label was invented to describe a composite of four cities in the north of England: Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds and Liverpool.

Concepts: England, Liverpool, Manchester United F.C., Pennines, Manchester, Sheffield, Preston, York