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Concept: Peninsular Malaysia

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A parasitological survey of 16 pangolins, confiscated from the Department of Wildlife and Nature Park Peninsular Malaysia (DWNP) at Kelantan and Pulau Pinang, Malaysia was conducted in 2011. Amblyomma javanense (family: Ixodidae) was the only ectoparasite found on the pangolins. The prevalence, intensity and life cycle of A. javanense were observed together with the respective pangolins' age and sex. It was found that 68.8% of the pangolins were infected, and significant difference, χ(2)(1, N=16)=4.02, p=0.05 were observed with males higher in infestation (88.9%) as compared to the females (42.9%). However, the mean intensity was higher on females (72) as compared to males (31.6). In addition, significant difference, χ(2) (2, N=16)=6.73, p=0.05 was recorded between adults and juveniles with juveniles found to be 100% infected as compared to adult (63.6%). Nevertheless, the mean intensity was slightly higher on adults (47) than juveniles (35). Adult ticks were found in higher numbers as compared to the nymph and larvae with number of male ticks higher (236) as compared to the females (53). Similarly, a high significant difference χ(2)(2, N=469)=203.47, p=0.05) was recorded in the composition of the tick’s life stages with a higher number of adult ticks (61.6%) followed by nymph (30.3%) and larvae (8.1%). As such, the results of this study revealed a picture of the A. javanense life cycle which is related to the age and gender of the Malayan Pangolin.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Sex, Pangolins, Pangolin, Peninsular Malaysia, Penang, Sunda Pangolin

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The taxonomy of poorly known Mesagraecia Ingrisch, 1998 is reviewed. A new species of Mesagraecia spine-headed katydid (Conocephalinae: Agraeciini) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Mesagraecia larutensis sp. n. A key to species is also presented.

Concepts: Federated Malay States, Kelantan, Ipoh, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, Perak

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Coeliccia erici Laidlaw, 1917 is re-described and illustrated for both sexes; its taxonomic history and the confusion surrounding it is discussed. Coeliccia kimurai Asahina, 1990 is shown to be a junior synonym of C. erici. Coelicca sameerae sp. nov. (holotype ♂, small stream near Sungai Lasir, Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia, deposited in the Natural History Museum, London) is described from both sexes from Peninsular Malaysia; this species had been confused with C. erici until now. A remark on the status of Coeliccia simillima Laidlaw, 1917 is made.

Concepts: Johor, Nature, Entomology, Peninsular Malaysia, Kelantan, Damselfly, Chresonym, Museum

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Parkia speciosa seeds are a common ingredient in Malay cuisine with traditional interest because of its medicinal importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals. This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and biological activities (antioxidant and antibacterial activities) of Parkia speciosa Hassk seeds collected from three different regions of Malaysia (Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Johor). Phytochemical constituents (total flavonoid and total phenolic) were measured using the spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay we used in order to evaluation of antioxidant activities. Disc diffusion method was employed for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

Concepts: Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Parkia speciosa, Malaysia, Bacteria, Microbiology, Antioxidant, Negeri Sembilan

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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes encephalitis in humans and horses. Clinical signs for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection are not clearly evident in the majority of affected animals. In Malaysia, information on the prevalence of JEV infection has not been established. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted during two periods, December 2015 to January 2016 and March to August in 2016, to determine the prevalence and risk factors in JEV infections among animals and birds in Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples were harvested from the 416 samples which were collected from the dogs, cats, water birds, village chicken, jungle fowls, long-tailed macaques, domestic pigs, and cattle in the states of Selangor, Perak, Perlis, Kelantan, and Pahang. The serum samples were screened for JEV antibodies by commercial IgG ELISA kits. A questionnaire was also distributed to obtain information on the animals, birds, and the environmental factors of sampling areas. The results showed that dogs had the highest seropositive rate of 80% (95% CI: ± 11.69) followed by pigs at 44.4% (95% CI: ± 1.715), cattle at 32.2% (95% CI: ± 1.058), birds at 28.9% (95% CI: ± 5.757), cats at 15.6% (95% CI: ± 7.38), and monkeys at 14.3% (95% CI: ± 1.882). The study also showed that JEV seropositivity was high in young animals and in areas where mosquito vectors and migrating birds were prevalent.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Kelantan, Menteri Besar, Bird, Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia, Selangor, Perak

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Peninsular Malaysia is populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Orang Asli. We have analyzed 17 Y-STRs loci for 243 randomly unrelated individuals, which include 153 Malays (7 Acheh, 13 Champa, 11 Rawa, 9 Kedah, 23 Minang, 15 Bugis, 43 Kelantan, 14 Jawa, and 18 Bugis) and 90 Orang Asli [54 Semang (16 Kensiu, 13 Lanoh, 25 Bateq); 30 Senoi (21 Semai, 9 Che Wong); and 6 Proto-Malay (6 Orang Kanaq)] from selected settlements in Peninsular Malaysia using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ kit (Applied Biosystems™). The overall haplotype diversity is 0.9966, i.e., 0.9984 for the Malays and 0.9793 for the Orang Asli. A total of 158 haplotypes (65.02%) were individually unique. The p value and pairwise Rst analysis was calculated to show the genetic structure of the samples with other world populations (from YHRD website). Based on the Y-STR data, Champa, Acheh, Kedah, Minang, and Kelantan are clustered together. Lanoh and Kensiu (Semang) are very closely related, suggesting similar paternal ancestry. Jawa Malays and Indonesian Java, plus the Bugis Malays and Australian Aborigines shared high degree of paternal lineage affinity. This study presents data for very precious relict groups, who are the earliest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia.

Concepts: Penang, Senoi, Peninsular Malaysia, Ethnic groups in Malaysia, Indonesia, Kelantan, Malaysia, Orang Asli

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The aim of the study was to identify risk factors and treatment needs of orphan children of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ob ectives: (1) To identify the association between the frequency of snacking and caries among orphan schoolchildren, (2) To assess Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli (microbiological assessment) in saliva of orphan children, and (3) To formulate treatment needs for orphan children.

Concepts: Federated Malay States, Peninsular Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, Dental caries, Selangor, Malaysia, Streptococcus mutans, Kuala Lumpur

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Malay, the main ethnic group in Peninsular Malaysia, is represented by various sub-ethnic groups such as Melayu Banjar, Melayu Bugis, Melayu Champa, Melayu Java, Melayu Kedah Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang and Melayu Patani. Using data retrieved from the MyHVP (Malaysian Human Variome Project) database, a total of 135 individuals from these sub-ethnic groups were profiled using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Xba 50-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to identify SNPs that were ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for Malays of Peninsular Malaysia. Prior to selecting the AIMs, the genetic structure of Malays was explored with reference to 11 other populations obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP Consortium database using principal component analysis (PCA) and ADMIXTURE. Iterative pruning principal component analysis (ipPCA) was further used to identify sub-groups of Malays. Subsequently, we constructed an AIMs panel for Malays using the informativeness for assignment (In) of genetic markers, and the K-nearest neighbor classifier (KNN) was used to teach the classification models. A model of 250 SNPs ranked by In, correctly classified Malay individuals with an accuracy of up to 90%. The identified panel of SNPs could be utilized as a panel of AIMs to ascertain the specific ancestry of Malays, which may be useful in disease association studies, biomedical research or forensic investigation purposes.

Concepts: Bioinformatics, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysian Malay, SNP array, Penang, DNA, Malaysia

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Comparing nurses and general caregivers' knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on medication administration process in long-term care (LTC) setting and an assessment of their stress, anxiety, and depression (SAD) level.

Concepts: Klang, Federated Malay States, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Barisan Nasional, Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

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Recently discovered populations of skinks of the genus Sphenomorphus from central Peninsular Malaysia represent a new species, S. sungaicolus sp. nov., and the first riparian skink known from Peninsular Malaysia. Morphological analyses of an earlier specimen reported as S. tersus from the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor indicate that it too is the new riparian species S. sungaicolus sp. nov. Additionally, two specimens from the Tembat Forest Reserve, Hulu Terengganu, Kelantan and another from Ulu Gombak, Selangor have been diagnosed as new the species. The latter specimen remained unidentified in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii since its collection in June 1962. Morphological and molecular analyses demonstrate that S. sungaicolus sp. nov. forms a clade with the Indochinese species S. maculatus, S. indicus, and S. tersus and is the sister species of the latter. Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other members of this clade by having a smaller SVL (66.5-89.6 mm); 39-44 midbody scale rows; 72-81 paravertebral scales; 74-86 ventral scales; a primitive plantar scale arrangement; and 20-22 scale rows around the tail at the position of the 10th subcaudal.

Concepts: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Biology, Kelantan, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Terengganu, Malaysia