Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Pelvic floor


Combined pelvic floor electromyography (EMG) and videocystourethrography (VCUG) during urodynamic investigation are the most acceptable and widely agreed methods for diagnosing detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (DESD). Theoretically, external urethral sphincter pressure (EUSP) measurement would provide enough information for the diagnosis of DESD and could simplify the urodynamic investigation replacing combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUSP measurement for DESD. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026;

Concepts: Diagnosis, Measurement, Electromyography, Pelvic floor, Accuracy and precision, Urethral sphincter


BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition in women causing reduced quality of life and withdrawal from fitness and exercise activities. Pregnancy and childbirth are established risk factors. Current guidelines for exercise during pregnancy have no or limited focus on the evidence for the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in the prevention and treatment of UI. AIMS: Systematic review to address the effect of PFMT during pregnancy and after delivery in the prevention and treatment of UI. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CENTRAL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PEDro databases and hand search of available reference lists and conference abstracts (June 2012). METHODS: Study eligibility criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasiexperimental trials published in the English language. Participants: Primiparous or multiparous pregnant or postpartum women. Interventions: PFMT with or without biofeedback, vaginal cones or electrical stimulation. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: Both authors independently reviewed, grouped and qualitatively synthesised the trials. RESULTS: 22 randomised or quasiexperimental trials were found. There is a very large heterogeneity in the populations studied, inclusion and exclusion criteria, outcome measures and content of PFMT interventions. Based on the studies with relevant sample size, high adherence to a strength-training protocol and close follow-up, we found that PFMT during pregnancy and after delivery can prevent and treat UI. A supervised training protocol following strength-training principles, emphasising close to maximum contractions and lasting at least 8 weeks is recommended. CONCLUSIONS: PFMT is effective when supervised training is conducted. Further high-quality RCTs are needed especially after delivery. Given the prevalence of female UI and its impact on exercise participation, PFMT should be incorporated as a routine part of women’s exercise programmes in general.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Uterus, Randomized controlled trial, Urinary incontinence, Urinary bladder, Pelvic floor, Pelvic girdle pain


PURPOSE: This study prospectively compared the diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with conventional defecography (CD) in outlet obstruction syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients with clinical symptoms of outlet obstruction underwent pelvic MR examination. The MR imaging protocol included static T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) images in the sagittal, axial and coronal planes; dynamic midsagittal T2-weighted single-shot (SS)-FSE and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) cine images during contraction, rest, straining and defecation. MR images (including and then excluding the evacuation phase) were compared with CD, which is considered the reference standard. RESULTS: Comparison between CD and MR with evacuation phase (MRWEP) showed no significant differences in sphincter hypotonia, dyssynergia, rectocele or rectal prolapse and significant differences in descending perineum. Comparison between CD and MR without evacuation phase (MRWOEP) showed no significant differences in sphincter hypotonia, dyssynergia or enterocele but significant differences in rectocele, rectal prolapse and descending perineum. Comparison between MRWEP and MRWOEP showed no significant differences in sphincter hypotonia, dyssynergia, enterocele or descending perineum but significant differences in rectocele, rectal prolapse, peritoneocele, cervical cystoptosis and hysteroptosis. CONCLUSIONS: MR imaging provides morphological and functional study of pelvic floor structures and may offer an imaging tool complementary to CD in multicompartment evaluation of the pelvis. An evacuation phase is mandatory.

Concepts: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Rectum, Coronal plane, Perineum, Rectal prolapse


OBJECTIVE: It is important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the physiological framework of the pelvic organ support system to develop more effective interventions. Developing more successful interventions for restoration of defects of the pelvic floor will lead to symptomatic improvement of pelvic floor prolapse and stress incontinence disorders. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the physiological framework related to the pelvic organ support system and propose the underlying mechanisms of pelvic organ support based on the anatomical findings. STUDY DESIGN: Ten female soft embalmed cadavers were dissected after a colorectal hands-on workshop to visualize components of the pelvic organ support system. RESULTS: The puborectalis attached at the superior pubic ramus above the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis. The anterior half of the iliococcygeus originated at the level of the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis but descended from the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis before it reached the ischial spine. The fibrous visceral sheath of the endopelvic fascia covered both the bladder and the upper vagina and bound these structures together. The levator ani muscle was separated into a horizontal and a vertical part at the medial attachment of the fibrous visceral sheath. A well-circumscribed adipose cushion pillow, in the ischioanal fossa and its anterior recess, supported the horizontal part of the levator ani muscle and pressed the vertical part against the pelvic viscera. Perivascular sheaths and pelvic nerve plexuses were reinforced by condensed endopelvic fascia, they suspended the pelvic organs posterolaterally. CONCLUSION: The pelvic organ support framework consists of two mechanical structures: (1) the supporting system of the levator ani muscle, the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis and the adipose cushion pillow, and (2) the suspension system of the neurovascular structures and the associated endopelvic fascia condensation.

Concepts: Muscle, Urinary bladder, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Human anatomy, Pubis, Perineum, Levator ani


To explore the effect of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor muscle function.

Concepts: Uterus, Hormone, Menopause, Muscle, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse


Perineal hernia is an uncommon complication of abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. Gracilis muscle flaps can be used to reconstruct the pelvic floor. The traditional repair utilises gracilis muscle alone, without overlying tissues and skin. We present the case of a 69-year-old white man who presented with a perineal hernia subsequent to abdominoperineal resection for advanced rectal cancer who was successfully treated with a modified de-epithelised gracilis myocutaneous flap with no evidence of recurrence at 18 months postsurgery. Surgical repair of postoperative perineal hernia using a gracilis flap spares the morbidity of abdominal-based reconstruction and provides a good option for patients in whom the abdomen is unavailable. Use of a myocutaneous flap adds strength to the repair when compared to reconstruction with the gracilis muscle alone, owing to the strength imparted by the dermis.

Concepts: Surgery, Hernia, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Rectum, Hernias, Perineum, Perineal hernia


The aims of the present study were to investigate the correlation among vaginal resting pressure and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and the correlation between the same variables and levator hiatus (LH) dimensions in nulliparous pregnant women.

Concepts: Childbirth, Uterus, Medical ultrasonography, Pelvic floor


Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition that often requires multimodal therapy. CPPS patients have a high incidence of pelvic floor spasm, which can be treated with pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT), however this is a specialized skill. We wished to compare outcomes of PFPT as part of multimodal therapy in CPPS patients between those treated at our institution and elsewhere.

Concepts: Syndromes, Pain, Pelvic floor, Myofascial pain syndrome, Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, Spasm, Chronic pain syndromes, CP/CPPS


The most frequent causes of chronic instability of the pubic symphysis are sports-related continual overload and traumatic symphyseal injuries. Acute injury of the pubic symphysis may be the result of external forces acting on the anterior pelvic ring or the result of internal forces, such as those arising during parturition. The postpartum form of instability following a complication-free birth is reversible and usually returns to normal within a few months through strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles. Residual instability of the pubis symphysis is on the whole a rare complication. Although established therapy options for acute symphyseal separation can be found in the literature, there are only a few case reports on chronic symphyseal instability. There are no guidelines on standardized therapy options. This review article examines the etiology, clinical findings, diagnostic techniques and management options for patients suffering from chronic symphyseal instability.

Concepts: Medicine, Childbirth, Medical terms, Injury, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Pubic symphysis, Pubis


Pregnant women benefit from completing pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFMEs). The aims of the study were to evaluate pregnant women’s levels of awareness, knowledge, and beliefs about the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and PFMEs.

Concepts: Childbirth, Muscle, Physical exercise, Urinary bladder, Muscular system, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Perineum