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Concept: Pauli exclusion principle


The interaction between the inner atoms/cluster and the outer fullerene cage is the source of various novel properties of endohedral metallofullerenes. Herein, we introduce an adatom-type spin polarization defect on the surface of a typical endohedral stable U(2)@C(60) to predict the associated structure and electronic properties of U(2)@C(61) based on the density functional theory method. We found that defect induces obvious changes in the electronic structure of this metallofullerene. More interestingly, the ground state of U(2)@C(61) is nonet spin in contrast to the septet of U(2)@C(60). Electronic structure analysis shows that the inner U atoms and the C ad-atom on the surface of the cage contribute together to this spin state, which is brought about by a ferromagnetic coupling between the spin of the unpaired electrons of the U atoms and the C ad-atom. This discovery may provide a possible approach to adapt the electronic structure properties of endohedral metallofullerenes.

Concepts: Scientific method, Magnetic field, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Density functional theory, Pauli exclusion principle, Fullerene, Metallofullerene


Spin selectivity in a ferromagnet results from a difference in the density of up- and down-spin electrons at the Fermi energy as a consequence of which the scattering rates depend on the spin orientation of the electrons. This property is utilized in spintronics to control the flow of electrons by ferromagnets in a ferromagnet (F1)/normal metal (N)/ferromagnet (F2) spin valve, where F1 acts as the polarizer and F2 the analyser. The feasibility of superconducting spintronics depends on the spin sensitivity of ferromagnets to the spin of the equal spin-triplet Cooper pairs, which arise in superconductor (S)-ferromagnet (F) heterostructures with magnetic inhomogeneity at the S-F interface. Here we report a critical temperature dependence on magnetic configuration in current-in-plane F-S-F spin valves with a holmium spin mixer at the S-F interface providing evidence of a spin selectivity of the ferromagnets to the spin of the triplet Cooper pairs.

Concepts: Electron, Fundamental physics concepts, Spin, Condensed matter physics, Superconductivity, Pauli exclusion principle, Spintronics, Cooper pair


The origin of the anomeric effect has remained an open question. After Mo demonstrated that hyperconjugation is not responsible for the anomeric effect [Y. Mo, Nature Chem., 2010, 2, 666.], electrostatic interactions and Pauli repulsions have been at the center of this debate. In this work, the total energies of the most stable rotamers of the equatorial and axial anomers of fluoro, hydroxyl, cyano and amino groups in cyclohexane and 2-substituted tetrahydropyran rings are decomposed into their fundamental kinetic, electrostatic and exchange components. In this partitioning scheme, the differences in the total energies among the most stable rotamers of each anomer correlate very well with the differences in the exchange components, revealing that the anomeric effect has no electrostatic origin. Indeed, the anomeric effect is dominated by the exchange energy. This proposal for the origin of the anomeric effect brings new insights that, once incorporated, may improve qualitative chemical models. Implications of this new proposal for the origin of the anomeric effect on geometric parameters and solvation are also discussed.

Concepts: Energy, Physics, Chemistry, Kinetic energy, Pauli exclusion principle, Anomer, Anomeric effect, Mutarotation


Recently, much effort has been devoted to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic solar cells based on blends of donors and acceptors molecules in bulk heterojunction architecture. One of the major losses in organic photovoltaic devices has been recombination of polaron pairs at the donor-acceptor domain interfaces. Here, we present a novel method to suppress polaron pair recombination at the donor-acceptor domain interfaces and thus improve the organic photovoltaic solar cell efficiency, by doping the device active layer with spin ½ radical galvinoxyl. At an optimal doping level of 3 wt%, the efficiency of a standard poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-(methoxycarbonyl)propyl)-1-1-phenyl)(6,6)C(61) solar cell improves by 18%. A spin-flip mechanism is proposed and supported by magneto-photocurrent measurements, as well as by density functional theory calculations in which polaron pair recombination rate is suppressed by resonant exchange interaction between the spin ½ radicals and charged acceptors, which convert the polaron pair spin state from singlet to triplet.

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, Density functional theory, Solar cell, Photovoltaics, Pauli exclusion principle, P-n junction, Photovoltaic array


The integration of ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3 with the Ge matrix is promising for spin injection in a silicon-compatible geometry. In this paper, we report the preparation of magnetic Mn5Ge3 nanocrystals embedded inside the Ge matrix by Mn ion implantation at elevated temperature. By X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, we observe crystalline Mn5Ge3 with variable size depending on the Mn ion fluence. The electronic structure of Mn in Mn5Ge3 nanocrystals is a 3d6 configuration, which is the same as that in bulk Mn5Ge3. A large positive magnetoresistance has been observed at low temperatures. It can be explained by the conductivity inhomogeneity in the magnetic/semiconductor hybrid system.

Concepts: Scientific method, Electron, Magnetic field, X-ray, Fundamental physics concepts, Atom, Magnetism, Pauli exclusion principle


The single phase Pb0.8Co0.2TiO3 thin films were synthesized on a Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by the sol-gel route. The present films exhibited homogeneous microstructure with low porosity. O 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to detect the amount of oxygen vacancies. The ferroelectric measurements showed that the ferroelectricity deteriorates with the increase in the number of oxygen vacancies. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and XPS were used to study the electronic structure. The results indicated that the decreased ferroelectricity might be ascribed to the weakened hybridization between O 2p and Pb 6s and Ti 3d orbitals. The ferromagnetic behaviors were also observed in the thin films and saturated magnetization raised monotonously with the oxygen vacancy rising due to the enhanced F-center exchange interaction. Magnetoelectric coupling of the films weakened with oxygen vacancy increase.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, X-ray, Condensed matter physics, Magnetism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Absorption spectroscopy, Pauli exclusion principle


Spin qubits based on interacting spins in double quantum dots have been demonstrated successfully. Readout of the qubit state involves a conversion of spin to charge information, which is universally achieved by taking advantage of a spin blockade phenomenon resulting from Pauli’s exclusion principle. The archetypal spin blockade transport signature in double quantum dots takes the form of a rectified current. At present, more complex spin qubit circuits including triple quantum dots are being developed. Here we show, both experimentally and theoretically, that in a linear triple quantum dot circuit the spin blockade becomes bipolar with current strongly suppressed in both bias directions and also that a new quantum coherent mechanism becomes relevant. In this mechanism, charge is transferred non-intuitively via coherent states from one end of the linear triple dot circuit to the other, without involving the centre site. Our results have implications for future complex nanospintronic circuits.

Concepts: Electron, Spin, Quantum computer, Quantum dot, Qubit, Quantum state, Pauli exclusion principle, Wolfgang Pauli


Epitaxial attachment of quantum dots into ordered superlattices enables the synthesis of quasi-two-dimensional materials that theoretically exhibit features such as Dirac cones and topological states, and have major potential for unprecedented optoelectronic devices. Initial studies found that disorder in these structures causes localization of electrons within a few lattice constants, and highlight the critical need for precise structural characterization and systematic assessment of the effects of disorder on transport. Here we fabricated superlattices with the quantum dots registered to within a single atomic bond length (limited by the polydispersity of the quantum dot building blocks), but missing a fraction (20%) of the epitaxial connections. Calculations of the electronic structure including the measured disorder account for the electron localization inferred from transport measurements. The calculations also show that improvement of the epitaxial connections will lead to completely delocalized electrons and may enable the observation of the remarkable properties predicted for these materials.

Concepts: Electron, Electric charge, Quantum mechanics, Atom, Chemical bond, Quantum electrodynamics, Electron configuration, Pauli exclusion principle


The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic (40)K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for (40)K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.

Concepts: Electron, Fundamental physics concepts, Spin, Matter, Particle physics, Atom, Fermion, Pauli exclusion principle


Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have great potential to contribute to a better understanding of some of the most important issues in many-body physics, such as high-temperature superconductivity. The Hubbard model-a simplified representation of fermions moving on a periodic lattice-is thought to describe the essential details of copper oxide superconductivity. This model describes many of the features shared by the copper oxides, including an interaction-driven Mott insulating state and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. Optical lattices filled with a two-spin-component Fermi gas of ultracold atoms can faithfully realize the Hubbard model with readily tunable parameters, and thus provide a platform for the systematic exploration of its phase diagram. Realization of strongly correlated phases, however, has been hindered by the need to cool the atoms to temperatures as low as the magnetic exchange energy, and also by the lack of reliable thermometry. Here we demonstrate spin-sensitive Bragg scattering of light to measure AFM spin correlations in a realization of the three-dimensional Hubbard model at temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition. This temperature regime is beyond the range of validity of a simple high-temperature series expansion, which brings our experiment close to the limit of the capabilities of current numerical techniques, particularly at metallic densities. We reach these low temperatures using a compensated optical lattice technique, in which the confinement of each lattice beam is compensated by a blue-detuned laser beam. The temperature of the atoms in the lattice is deduced by comparing the light scattering to determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations and numerical linked-cluster expansion calculations. Further refinement of the compensated lattice may produce even lower temperatures which, along with light scattering thermometry, would open avenues for producing and characterizing other novel quantum states of matter, such as the pseudogap regime and correlated metallic states of the two-dimensional Hubbard model.

Concepts: Electron, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Physics, Condensed matter physics, Thermodynamics, Fermion, Pauli exclusion principle