Concept: Patulous Eustachian tube
The development of minimally invasive procedures such as the balloon dilation Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) is an alternative to the grommet tympanum membrane. BET is applied in the cases where, after elimination of all factors influencing the ET and middle ear functioning, no sufficient improvement is observed. The aim of this study was to present the therapeutic benefits of the BET method in the treatment of ETD caused by disorders in the middle ear ventilation. The BET procedure was offered to four patients (3 men and 1 woman) after subjective, physical, otorhinolaryngological and audiometric examinations including pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and pressure-swallow test. As the method was novel, preinterventional CT angiography of the carotid arteries was performed in all patients. Any complications were noticed during and after the procedure (bleeding or damage of regional mucosa) in any patients. Our clinical studies assessed the feasibility and safety of the BET during a short-term period-only a 6-week observation. Although patients revealed a significant improvement of ET score, longer long-term studies are necessary to determine whether this method will demonstrate lasting benefits and safety in the treatment of chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction. In other investigations, improvement was found to be time dependent.
Sufficient diagnostic tools and effective therapies for chronic obstructive eustachian tube dysfunction are lacking.
Patulous eustachian tube remains a challenging management problem in otolaryngology. The autophony experienced by this patient population can be severe, and as yet no reliable surgical method exists to reduce or eliminate this annoying symptom. Our objective was to develop a novel endoscopic technique to assist these patients.
Eustachian tube dysfunction is a common problem and transnasal endoscopic balloon dilation of the Eustachian tube (ET) is a new surgical technique. The goal of this study is to review the evolution of this novel technique and study the preliminary outcomes.
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction is common, and implicated in persistent middle ear disease. Recent studies suggest the promise of balloon dilatation of the Eustachian tube to modify local anatomy and physiology, restoring normal function.
OBJECTIVE: The Eustachian tube is difficult to evaluate because it is located deep in the head. However, the introduction of 320-row area detector CT has made it possible to evaluate this region. In the present study, movement of the Eustachian tube during sniffing was visualized using area detector CT in patients with patulous Eustachian tube. METHODS: Four patients with patulous Eustachian tube were examined using an area detector CT scanner (Aquilion ONE, Toshiba). This scanner supports 320-row scanning of 0.5-mm slices at up to 0.275 s/rot., eliminating temporal mismatch between various parts of the acquired images and permitting 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) images to be obtained by continuous scanning. The scan conditions were 120 kV, 120 to 150 mA, 0.5 mm × 280 to 320 slices, and 0.35 seconds per rotation × 9 rotations. The patient was seated on a reclining chair tilted to 45 degrees and was instructed to sniff during continuous scanning. Images of the Eustachian tube were generated at 0.1-second intervals. CONCLUSION: At the start of sniffing, the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube closed from the isthmus toward the pharynx. The starting point differed from patient to patient. In patients with patulous Eustachian tube, sniffing (an unconscious habit that helps to relieve ear discomfort) is an important factor in the development of middle ear diseases. We have successfully depicted this event for the first time, demonstrating various patterns of Eustachian tube closure during sniffing in patients with patulous Eustachian tube. This method may be useful for evaluating Eustachian tube dysfunction.
To investigate the evidence for balloon dilatation of the eustachian tube using a transtympanic approach.
A 20-year-old man presented with a history of popping sounds in both ears during deep breathing. Audiometry showed normal hearing. Otoscopy revealed indrawn and severely atrophic eardrums that moved outward on nasal expiration and inward on inspiration, shown in a video.
Patulous Eustachian Tube (PET) is of increasing importance in otology. However, despite the abundance of diseases requiring a differential diagnosis from PET, such as superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome, perilymphatic fistula, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, etc., there are currently no established diagnostic criteria for PET. In view of these circumstances, the Japan Otological Society (JOS) Eustachian Tube Committee proposed the diagnostic criteria for Patulous Eustachian Tube in 2012, in order to promote clinical research on PET. A revision was made in 2016, maintaining the original concept that the criteria should be very simple, avoid any contamination of “Definite PET” with uncertain cases. Moreover, it was also intended to minimize the number of cases that could be accidentally excluded even in the presence of some suspected findings (“Possible PET”). The criteria can be used by all otolaryngologists even without using the Eustachian tube function test apparatus. However, the use of such an apparatus may increase the chances of detecting “Definite PET”. The algorithm for the diagnosis of PET using the criteria has also been described. The JOS diagnostic criteria for Patulous Eustachian Tube will further promote international scientific communication on PET.
Ear symptoms are common among patients presenting to a rhinology clinic. Validated inventories are available for patient quality-of-life in sinonasal disease and Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD). This study sought to determine the extent of ETD symptoms, using validated metrics, in a large population of patients presenting to a tertiary rhinology clinic.