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Concept: Pasteur Institute


Elie Metchnikoff passed away on July 15(th), 1916. He is considered to be the father of phagocytes, cellular innate immunity, probiotics, and gerontology. In all of these fields, he was a visionary. To achieve such a notability and produce so many masterpieces, Metchnikoff used more than 30 animal species to support his findings, and his pasteurian laboratory published more than 200 papers in the Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. As a wonderful team leader and a great mentor, during his 28 years at Institut Pasteur, he welcomed and supervised more than 100 young trainees.Trained as an embryologist, he contributed to the birth of immunology and to the understanding of physiology and pathology. Indeed, Metchnikoff and his team investigated inflammation in guinea pigs, rats, frogs; studied infectious diseases in monkeys, caimans, geese; investigated aging in parrots, dogs, humans; proposed hypotheses to understand age-associated senility using rabbits and humans; developed germ free tadpoles, flies, chicks; studied the gut flora in bats, horses, birds, humans; and popularized the use of probiotics as a tool to delay the deleterious effects of toxic compounds derived from putrefactive gut bacteria. He was also a philosopher and penned essays on human disharmony and on pessimism and optimism.

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Gut flora, Microbiology, Louis Pasteur, Pasteur Institute, Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov


The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague.

Concepts: Yersinia pestis, Bubonic plague, Black Death, Plague, Pneumonic plague, Bacterial diseases, Third Pandemic, Pasteur Institute


This paper describes the construction of a silver-based LSPR biosensor for endotoxin detection. We used GLAD method to procure reproducible silver nanocolumns. In this work, the silver nanostructures were considerably stabilized by a SAM of MPA, and the limit of detection of biosensor was measured to be 340 pg/ml for endotoxin E. coli. Considering endotoxin B. abortus as the second type of endotoxin contamination in our target samples (HBs-ag produced in Institute Pasteur, Iran), we investigated selectivity of the biosensor in various experiments. We showed that this biosensor can selectively detect both types of endotoxins compared to other biological species. Overall, this study proposes that LSPR biosensing can be considered as a sensitive, simple, and label-free method for endotoxin detection in the quality control laboratories.

Concepts: Evolution, Biology, Species, Escherichia coli, Gram-negative bacteria, Endotoxin, Type, Pasteur Institute


Thermal stability (TS) is a part of the BCG vaccine characterization by which consistency of process in BCG vaccine production could be confirmed. To enhance the TS of the vaccine, some prevalent stabilizers in different concentration were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to Freeze-drying process. We found a formulation more effective than the current stabilizer for retaining the higher viability of lyophilized BCG vaccine produced by Pasteur Institute of Iran.

Concepts: Vaccine, Tuberculosis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Freeze drying, Louis Pasteur, Pasteur Institute, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Albert Calmette


An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. An investigation was held December 10, 2015, to February 10, 2016 in the focus of the epidemic. Its objective was to describe the epidemic according to the time, places and people and to determine the incidence and lethality of the disease. This was a descriptive study. The data collection was made by interview and using a linear plug composed of several sections. All suspected cases were taken into account. The interview was done with patients or the parents of sick children. The blood and the contents of the lesions were collected and sent to the laboratory of the Institut Pasteur in Bangui for confirmation. Our data were analyzed with Epi info7. In total 12 patients had been registered including 9 secondary cases. Patients aged 31 to 40 years and less than 10 years were most affected. In addition, adults were most affected by the disease (8/12). The average age was 25 years with extremes at 15 months and 41 years. The sex male/female ratio was 1. The overall attack rate of disease and lethality were 0.2 per 1000 inhabitants and 25% respectively. The fatality was 67% among children less than 10 years. Fever and rash were the main symptoms of the disease. Lymphadenopathy was present in 54.5%. Ten of the 12 patients were hospitalized (83%). The average duration of hospitalization was 13 days with the extremes 6 and 28 days. The monkeypox like smallpox remains a serious and fatal disease in children. A survey of animal reservoirs complained to identify strains of the virus is essential. During an outbreak, good communication and isolation of patients may break the chain of transmission. Other measures to limit their contact with the forest or virus reservoirs are to be encouraged.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Virus, Hospital, Central African Republic, Monkeypox, Pasteur Institute, Institut Pasteur de Lille


Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria.

Concepts: Virus, Louis Pasteur, Fungal diseases, Pasteur Institute


Jacques Monod’s ideas on the applications of science came within the scope of a long tradition at the Institut Pasteur. Louis Pasteur, whose scientific career was characterized by a permanent come and go between science and its applications, long opposed the idea of getting any income from his research, until the financial needs of the Institut Pasteur made him change his mind. As for Jacques Monod, he remained a fervent supporter of basic science during his whole scientific career. However, once he became director of the Institut Pasteur, he realized that the applications of research had to be developed to support the institute from a financial point of view. Thus, he reorganized the valorization of research in the institute, through an incitation of scientists to develop projects with possible applications, and by creating a company, Institut Pasteur Production, for which he had a factory built, and which was in charge of producing and commercializing the vaccines and reagents stemming from the research at the Institut Pasteur.

Concepts: Scientific method, Vaccination, Science, Louis Pasteur, Jacques Monod, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Pasteur Institute, Institut Pasteur de Lille


Odessa physician Yakov Bardakh had an unusually high number of bacteriological ‘firsts’ to his credit: in 1886, while working at the Odessa Bacteriological Station, he was the first to test Louis Pasteur’s anti-rabies vaccine on himself in order to demonstrate its safety. In the 1890s, in addition to conducting pioneering research on diphtheria, he created the first extensive course in bacteriology at the Novorossiya University - the first such course in Russia - and established the first university laboratory in Russia to specialize in bacteriology. In 1903 he created the first Medical Emergency Service in Russia.

Concepts: Medicine, Microbiology, Vaccination, University, Emergency medical services, Louis Pasteur, Odessa, Pasteur Institute


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing method has recently been developed and used for typing and subtyping of Salmonella spp., but it is still complicated and labor intensive because it has to analyze all spacers in two CRISPR loci. Here, we developed a more convenient and efficient method, namely CRISPR Loci Spacer-Pair Typing (CLSPT), which only needs to analyze the two newly incorporated spacers adjoining the leader array in the two CRISPR loci. We analyzed the CRISPR array of 82 strains belonging to 21 Salmonella serovars isolated from human in different area of China by using this new method. We also retrieved the newly incorporated spacers in each CRISPR locus of 537 Salmonella isolates which have definite serotypes in the Institut Pasteur CRISPR Database to evaluate this method. Our findings showed that this new CLSPT method presents a high consistency (Kappa = 0.9872, MCC= 0.9712) with traditional serotyping and thus it can also be used for prediction of serotypes of Salmonella spp. Moreover, this new method has a considerable discriminatory power (DI = 0.8145) when compared with multilocus sequence typing (DI = 0.8088) and conventional CRISPR typing (DI = 0.8684). Because CLSPT only costs about $5 to $10 per isolate, it is a much cheaper and more attractive method for subtyping of Salmonella. In conclusion, this new method will provide considerable advantages over other molecular subtyping methods, and it may become a valuable epidemiologic tool for the surveillance of Salmonella infections.

Concepts: Microbiology, Developed country, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella, Serotype, 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack, Pasteur Institute, Institut Pasteur de Lille


Although this volume is dedicated to honoring François Jacob, I would like my contribution to broaden the context by recalling the background within which the scientists of those times operated. The specific scientific accomplishments of Jacob will certainly be covered by the other contributors who collaborated with him. My handful of recollections presented here largely as vignettes is intended to give the reader a feeling for the elements, many social, that shaped the generation of scientists that included such central figures, Jacob, Lwoff, Monod. It is the tale of a generation trying to express its creativity in a world caught up in war, irrational values and unforgivable inhumanity. Even this limited account is a great story bringing us important lessons for thought.

Concepts: Sociology, Cognition, Louis Pasteur, The Reader, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Pasteur Institute, Institut Pasteur de Lille