Corn-broad bean spaghetti type pasta was made with a corn/broad bean flour blend in a 70:30 ratio, through an extrusion-cooking process (Brabender 10 DN single-screw extruder with a 3:1 compression ratio). The effect of temperature (T=80, 90 and 100°C) and moisture (M=28%, 31% and 34%) on the extrusion responses (specific consumption of mechanical energy and pressure) and the quality of this pasta-like product (expansion, cooking-related losses, water absorption, firmness and stickiness) was assessed. The structural changes of starch were studied by means of DSC and XRD. The extrusion-cooking process, at M=28% and T=100°C, is appropriate to obtain corn-broad bean spaghetti-type pasta with high protein and dietary fibre content and adequate quality. The cooking characteristics and resistance to overcooking depended on the degree of gelatinisation and formation of amylose-lipid complexes. The critical gelatinisation point was 46.55%; beyond that point, the quality of the product declines.
Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility.
Presence and stability of a protein network was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy, by protein solubility studies, and by assessing the accessibility of protein thiols in samples of commercial Italian semolina pasta made in industrial plants using different processes. The pasting properties of starch in each sample were evaluated by means of a viscoamylograph. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate water distribution and water mobility in dry pasta, and at various cooking times. The molecular information derived from these studies was related to sensory indices, indicating that protein reticulation was dependent on the process conditions, which affected water penetration, distribution, and mobility during cooking. Products with a crosswise gradient of water mobility once cooked had the best sensory scores at optimal cooking time, whereas products with a less compact protein network performed better when slightly overcooked.
BACKGROUND: Buckwheat flour and buckwheat sprouts possess antioxidant properties, and previous studies have reported on buckwheat flour displaying an inhibitory activity for angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE). Information is lacking on the bioactivity of other parts of the buckwheat, such as the seed hulls and plant stalks. This study investigates the ACE inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of various parts of 2 types of buckwheat, namely, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn). METHODS: For high throughput screening, we used a microplate fluometric assay to evaluate the ACE inhibitory effects of various extracts and the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay to evaluate antioxidant activity. RESULTS: The extract of common hulls extracted using 50% (v/v)-ethanol solvent presented a remarkable inhibitory activity. The value of IC50 is 30 g ml-1. The extracts of both common and tartary hulls extracted using 50% (v/v)-ethanol solvent demonstrated an antioxidant activity that is superior to that of other extracts. CONCLUSION: This study determined that the ethanolic extract of the hulls of common buckwheat presented more favorable antioxidant and ACE inhibitory abilities. However, the correlation of antioxidant activity and ACE inhibitory activity for all 18 types of extracts is low. The ACE inhibitory activity could have been caused by a synergistic effect of flavonoids or from other unidentified components in the extracts. The ethanolic extract of common hulls demonstrated remarkable ACE inhibitory activity and is worthy of further animal study.
Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard
- Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment
- Published over 5 years ago
This paper deals with the migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants, namely mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH), diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) and polyalphaolefins (PAO) from adhesives into dry semolina and egg pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard. Migration was monitored during its shelf life (for up to two years) simulating storage in a supermarket (packs on shelves) and conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil). Migration from the secondary packaging (transport boxes of corrugated board) was also studied for semolina pasta. After 24 months of exposure, semolina pasta stored on shelves reached 3.2 and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, Migration from the adhesives used to close the boxes and from the transport boxes contributed about 30% and 25% of the total contamination, respectively. The highest contamination levels (14.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, after 24 months) were found in egg pasta stored on shelves (no adhesives), and seemed due to the highest contribution from the external environment.
The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses.
This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.
Given the popularity of gluten-free diets, research regarding the health implications of gluten-free (GF) products is necessary. This study compared the postprandial glycemic responses to three GF pastas commonly available in the U.S. market to that of wheat pasta in healthy adults. Thirteen healthy non-smoking men and women from a university campus population were enrolled in this randomized 4 × 4 block crossover study and completed all four treatments. Participants followed a standardized diet and activity protocol the day prior to testing, and one week separated testing periods. The test meal (a macaroni and cheese dish prepared with conventional wheat pasta or with GF pasta composed of either brown rice, rice and corn, or corn and quinoa flours) was consumed under observation, and blood was sampled in the fasted state and at one-half hour intervals for the first 2 hours following meal ingestion. A significant pasta × time interaction was observed for the incremental postprandial glycemia curves (p = 0.036, repeated measures ANOVA; effect size [partial eta squared], 0.943). Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference for the 30-minute postprandial blood glucose concentrations: the plasma glucose concentration was 57% higher for the GF rice and corn pasta compared to traditional wheat pasta (p = 0.011). Since postprandial glycemia was higher for GF pasta composed of rice and corn flours compared to wheat pasta, more research is needed to understand how the substitute ingredients for GF pastas impact health parameters and disease risk.
Bubbles, found in a huge variety of food products, are known to afford desirable quality attributes, especially those related to texture, mouthfeel and taste. However, the presence of bubbles and their effects on wheat flour noodles is an aspect that has been, until now, largely overlooked, despite the positive and negative connotations of bubbly inclusions on Asian noodle quality. X-rays from a synchrotron source (Biomedical Imaging and Therapy facility at the Canadian Light Source) were used to rapidly and non-destructively acquire tomographic images of noodle dough. Appropriate image analysis protocols were used to determine the bubble size distribution, the orientation of bubbles, and their position within the dough sheet. The effect of processing (one or multiple lamination steps) on bubble properties in the dough that was subsequently sheeted (gradual elongation and reduction in thickness) was investigated. Bubble size distributions, well captured by lognormal distribution function, showed that the lamination process induced bubble entrapment and reduction in bubble size. Bubbles were found to be flat, elongated and oriented in the sheeting direction, this effect being less for doughs laminated ten times (90° rotations between lamination steps). Interestingly, a gradient in concentration of bubbles within the dough sheet was found from the noodle core to the sheet edges. Aging effects were also apparent. This first non-destructive study of bubbles in wheat-flour noodle dough provides a more complete knowledge of the dough sheet’s internal structure, and how it originates via processing, and this has repercussions on the overall quality of Asian noodles.
Intuitive eating is an eating approach that emphasizes increased focus on internal hunger and fullness cues to regulate eating behavior; thus, successful intuitive eating should curb the influence of environmental factors such as plate and portion size on consumption. The current study examined whether self-reported levels of intuitive eating moderated the influence of portion size on college students' food consumption during an afternoon meal of pasta and tomato sauce.