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Concept: Parts-per notation


In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO₂ concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports.

Concepts: Electrochemistry, Concentration, Chemical equilibrium, Oxide, Chlorine, Solution, Parts-per notation, Chlorine dioxide


Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfur-containing odorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, the mice discriminated concentrations <0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations <1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants at concentrations <0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detected concentrations <10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lower range of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play a special role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the human subjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantly more sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed in their sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species' olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the type of alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactory sensitivity.

Concepts: Human, Predation, Olfaction, Olfactory system, Primate, Odor, Mouse, Parts-per notation


We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p<0.01) higher for nonwhites than for whites. The environmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ∼7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

Concepts: Demography, United States, Concentration, Nitrogen, Ischemia, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Parts-per notation, Nitrogen dioxide


The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4-8 mM). ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75-90%) in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM) than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb]) or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb). Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb) or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb) reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh content in the brood food.

Concepts: Insect, Concentration, Honey bee, Beekeeping, Acetylcholine, Bee, Pollinators, Parts-per notation


The effects of monorhamnolipid (RL-F1) and dirhamnolipid (RL-F2) on the sorption and desorption of triclosan (TCS) in sediment-water system were investigated in this study. Results of the bath equilibrium experiments showed that RL-F2 provided much higher solubilization enhancement for TCS than RL-F1. Sorption of both rhamnolipids by the sediments was highly correlated with the sediment clay content. Moreover, the apparent distribution coefficients of TCS K(d)(∗) decreased with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration (0.05-7.5mM), and RL-F2 presented a larger distribution capacity of TCS into the aqueous phase at relatively higher concentrations (>2.5mM). Further results also indicated that the release of TCS from sediment could be enhanced by both rhamnolipids. RL-F2 was more efficient than RL-F1 in desorbing TCS from the sediment with low clay content. The TCS desorption percentages R(d)(∗) of RL-F2 (5mM) was 1.8-2.4 times that of RL-F1. These findings could provide useful guidelines for the application of rhamnolipid-enhanced remediation technologies for TCS contaminated sediment.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Erosion, Aqueous solution, Silt, Phase diagram, Parts-per notation, Sediments


Blood lead concentrations have decreased dramatically in US children over the past 4 decades, but too many children still live in housing with deteriorated lead-based paint and are at risk for lead exposure with resulting lead-associated cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. Evidence continues to accrue that commonly encountered blood lead concentrations, even those below 5 µg/dL (50 ppb), impair cognition; there is no identified threshold or safe level of lead in blood. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 2.6% of preschool children in the United States had a blood lead concentration ≥5 µg/dL (≥50 ppb), which represents about 535 000 US children 1 to 5 years of age. Evidence-based guidance is available for managing increased lead exposure in children, and reducing sources of lead in the environment, including lead in housing, soil, water, and consumer products, has been shown to be cost-beneficial. Primary prevention should be the focus of policy on childhood lead toxicity.

Concepts: Psychology, United States, Electrochemistry, Concentration, Toxicology, Lead, Parts-per notation, Lead poisoning


: The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected mid-week skill based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary free-testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a mid-week training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of pre-match testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data was pooled across the winning (n=3) and losing (n=3) outcomes. The mid-week pre-training T/C ratio was significantly lower (p<0.01) prior to a win than a loss and the increase in the preto post-T/C ratio before a win was significant (p<0.001). The increase in the pre- to post-testosterone concentration before a win was also shown to be significant (p<0.01). However, the relative changes in testosterone prior to games that were won were not statistically different to that of games lost (p>0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game day pre-testosterone concentrations and the mid-week cortisol response (r= -0.90, p=0.01) and mid-week T/C ratio response (r= 0.90, p=0.01). In conclusion, a mid-week measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill based training session appears to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of mid-week hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition.

Concepts: Hormone, Concentration, Skill, Outcome, Parts-per notation, Rugby sevens, Rugby union in Australia


Heteroatom doping is an efficient way to modify the chemical and electronic properties of graphene. In particular, boron doping is expected to induce a p-type (boron)-conducting behavior to pristine (nondoped) graphene, which could lead to diverse applications. However, the experimental progress on atomic scale visualization and sensing properties of large-area boron-doped graphene (BG) sheets is still very scarce. This work describes the controlled growth of centimeter size, high-crystallinity BG sheets. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to visualize the atomic structure and the local density of states around boron dopants. It is confirmed that BG behaves as a p-type conductor and a unique croissant-like feature is frequently observed within the BG lattice, which is caused by the presence of boron-carbon trimers embedded within the hexagonal lattice. More interestingly, it is demonstrated for the first time that BG exhibits unique sensing capabilities when detecting toxic gases, such as NO2 and NH3, being able to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g., parts per trillion, parts per billion). This work envisions that other attractive applications could now be explored based on as-synthesized BG.

Concepts: Electron, Concentration, Chemistry, Chemical element, Microscopy, Boron, Dopant, Parts-per notation


Abstract The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid using both micronuleus (MN) assay, in human lymphocytes, and Allium cepa assay, in the root meristem cells. In Allium test, EC50 value was determined in order to selecting the test concentrations for the assay and the root tips were treated with 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations of pyracarbolid. One percent of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In the micronucleus assay, the cultures were treated with four concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) of pyracarbolid for 24 and 48 h, negative and positive controls were also used in the experiment parallely. The results showed that mitotic index (MI) significantly reduced with increasing the pyracarbolid concentration at each exposure time. It was also obtained that prophase and metaphase index decreased significantly in all concentration at each exposure time. Anaphase index decreased as well and results were found to be statistically significant, except 24 h. A significant increase was observed in MN frequency in all concentrations and both treatment periods when compared with the controls. Pyracarbolid also caused a significant reduction in the cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) in all concentration and both exposure time.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Cell cycle, Mitosis, P-value, Methane, Photography, Parts-per notation


The aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Morus alba against Foot and Mouth disease virus using MTT assay (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as Means ± S.D. The concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are considered to be effective antiviral concentrations. From the tested plant extracts, Moringa oleifera showed potent antiviral activity (p<0.05) while Azadirachta indica showed significant antiviral activity in the range of 1-50μ/ml & 12-100μ/ml respectively. In contrast no antiviral activity was observed by Morus alba as all the tested concentration resulted in significant reduction (p<0.05) in cell survival percentage.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Organism, Electrochemistry, Concentration, Cytotoxicity, MTT assay, Parts-per notation, Moringa oleifera