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Concept: Parotid gland


Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most frequent primary hepatic tumor, metastasizes in more than 50% of cases. However, parotid gland metastatic HCCs are very uncommon. We report a patient in whom the finding of a left parotid mass revealed metastatic HCC.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatitis C, Parotid gland, Warthin's tumor


Mumps is an acute viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid or other salivary glands. On May 1, 2015, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) confirmed a mumps outbreak at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. IDPH and the Champaign-Urbana Public Health District (C-UPHD) conducted an investigation and identified 317 cases of mumps during April 2015-May 2016. Because of sustained transmission in a population with high 2-dose coverage with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, a third MMR dose was recommended by IDPH, C-UPHD, and the university’s McKinley Health Center. No formal recommendation for or against the use of a third MMR dose has been issued by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (1). However, CDC has provided guidelines for use of a third dose as a control measure during mumps outbreaks in settings in which persons are in close contact with one another, where transmission is sustained despite high 2-dose MMR coverage, and when traditional control measures fail to slow transmission (2).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Vaccination, MMR vaccine, Measles, Parotid gland, Salivary gland, Mumps, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices



OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Lymphoma of the parotid gland (LPG) is a rare disease. Clinical diagnosis is difficult, due to a lack of specific symptoms and findings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic workup based on the analysis of our cases of LPG and to present the stage-dependent treatment outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: From 1992 to 2008, 697 patients at our institution underwent surgery because of a parotid tumor. Among 246 malignancies, an LPG was found histologically in 28 cases (4%). Staging was performed according to the Ann Arbor classification, and treatment was performed by radiotherapy and/or chemo/immunotherapy. The patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: No specific symptoms were found, with the main finding being a unilateral, painless, slowly progressing parotid mass. The sensitivities of imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology in detecting LPG were 41% and 12%, respectively. Histology was the key to diagnosis, and frozen sections often revealed the diagnosis during surgery, which obviated the need for more extensive surgery in 89% of cases. The 5-year disease-specific survival estimates were 100% and 75% for early tumor stages (I and II) and advanced stages (III and IV), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: When the precise nature of a parotid mass remains obscure after fine-needle aspiration cytology and imaging, but LPG is clinically suspected, surgical tissue sampling with frozen sections appears to be a valid option and can prevent the need for more extensive surgery. The treatment outcome for LPG is favorable.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Surgery, Needle aspiration biopsy, Case-control study, Study design, Parotid gland, Warthin's tumor


The presence of the leptin receptor (ObR) has already been highlighted in the human major salivary glands and it has been hypothesized that leptin may act by regulating the gland’s growth. No data are reported on domestic animals so, considering the important role that these glands play, not only related to food ingestion and digestion, and the important functional role hypothesized to explain the presence of ObR in humans salivary glands, the aim of the present work was to investigate the presence and the distribution of the leptin receptor in horse parotid and mandibular glands, by immunohistochemical techniques. The presence of ObR was evidenced in parotid and mandibular glands, exclusively localized in duct epithelial cells; their positivity was localized in the cytoplasm and was most evident near its apical portion. Immuno-positivity not only affects the intralobular ducts (intercalated and striated) but also the interlobular ones. Our results indicate that horse major salivary glands, like those of humans, are likely targets of leptin actions, suggesting a functional role of leptin on these glands.

Concepts: Protein, Digestive system, Epithelium, Gland, Glands, Parotid gland, Salivary gland, Submandibular gland


Sialolithiasis is a benign pathology that occurs most frequently in the submandibular salivary gland due to its anatomic features. Depending on the size and degree of calcification, a sialolith can be visible in radiographic examinations. Patients commonly experience pain and/or edema when the ducts are obstructed. The authors report two cases of sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland after searching for the source of swelling in the submandibular region. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and tomographic examinations. Despite the considerable size of the sialoliths, treatment consisted of the removal of the calcified mass using an intraoral surgical approach. The prognosis is often good and there is generally no recurrence of the condition.

Concepts: Physician, Medical diagnosis, Autonomic nervous system, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Parotid gland, Salivary gland, Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland


Background Chronic sialadenitis is one of the most frequent chronic complications after radioiodine (RAI) therapy for thyroid cancer. To evaluate the long-term effects of RAI ablation on salivary gland function, we investigated scintigraphic changes in salivary glands by direct comparison of two salivary gland scintigraphies (SGS) taken before and at 5 yrs after a RAI ablation. Methods SGS was performed just before RIA (pre-SGS) and approximately 5 years after RAI ablation (F/U SGS) in 213 subjects who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. The uptake score (US) was graded, and the ejection fraction (EF) was quantified for the parotid and submandibular glands at pre-SGS and F/U SGS. Changes in salivary gland function were graded as mild, moderate, or severe according to the differences in US and EF between the two SGS. Xerostomia were assessed and compared with the SGS findings. Results Worsening of the US was observed in 182 of 852 salivary glands (total: 21.3%; mild: 4.2%, moderate: 7.4%, severe: 9.7%), and 47.4% of the patients showed a worsening US for at least 1 of 4 salivary glands. A decrease in EF was observed in 173 of 852 salivary glands (total: 20.3%; mild: 5.4%, moderate: 6.8%, severe: 8.1%), and 43.7% of the patients experienced a decrease in the EF of at least 1 of the 4 salivary glands. Bilateral parotid gland dysfunction was the most commonly observed condition. Thirty-five (16.4%) patients complained of xerostomia at 5 years after RAI ablation. Scintigraphic changes in salivary gland function and xerostomia were more common in patients receiving 5.55 GBq, compared with 3.7 GBq. Xerostomia were more common in patients with submandibular gland dysfunction than those with parotid gland dysfunction (68.8% vs. 33.3%, P<0.05). The number of dysfunctional salivary glands was correlated with xerostomia (P<0.01). Conclusion About 20% of the salivary glands were dysfunctional on SGS at 5 years after a single RAI ablation, especially in patients who received higher doses of radioiodine. While parotid glands are more susceptible to I-131 related damage, xerostomia was more associated with submandibular gland dysfunction and the prevalence of dysfunctional salivary glands.

Concepts: Sjögren's syndrome, Parotid gland, Salivary gland, Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland, Mumps, Serous fluid


Primary multiple pleomorphic adenomas in a unilateral parotid gland in previously untreated patients is a rare finding, and little is known about the etiology and pathogenesis. Here, a highly unusual case of a primary multifocal pleomorphic adenoma consisting of 15 individual nodules is presented. It is shown that all nodes are clonally related and thus share a common cell of origin excluding an independent multifocal pathogenesis. Most likely, multifocal pleomorphic adenoma represents parasitic nodules that have been detached from a main nodule, which may have been the result of undisclosed trauma.

Concepts: Adenoma, Parotid gland, Warthin's tumor, Pleomorphic adenoma


This study compared extracapsular dissection (ED) vs superficial parotidectomy (SP) in the treatment of pleomorphic adenoma and benign parotid tumors.

Concepts: Benign tumor, Parotid gland, Warthin's tumor, Pleomorphic adenoma


The proper ablation of any neoplasm of the head and neck requires the inclusion of linear and anatomic barrier margins surrounding the neoplasm. Extirpative surgery of the major and minor salivary glands is certainly no exception to this surgical principle. To this end, the selection and execution of the most appropriate ablative surgical procedure for a major or minor benign salivary gland neoplasm is an essential exercise in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Of equal importance is the intraoperative identification and preservation of the pseudocapsule surrounding the benign neoplasm. This article reviews these important elements specifically related to ablative surgery of benign neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular and minor salivary glands with strict attention to observed nomenclature.

Concepts: Benign tumor, Sjögren's syndrome, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Glands, Parotid gland, Salivary gland, Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland