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Concept: Parker Posey


Are we able to infer what happened to a person from a brief sample of his/her behaviour? It has been proposed that mentalising skills can be used to retrodict as well as predict behaviour, that is, to determine what mental states of a target have already occurred. The current study aimed to develop a paradigm to explore these processes, which takes into account the intricacies of real-life situations in which reasoning about mental states, as embodied in behaviour, may be utilised. A novel task was devised which involved observing subtle and naturalistic reactions of others in order to determine the event that had previously taken place. Thirty-five participants viewed videos of real individuals reacting to the researcher behaving in one of four possible ways, and were asked to judge which of the four ‘scenarios’ they thought the individual was responding to. Their eye movements were recorded to establish the visual strategies used. Participants were able to deduce successfully from a small sample of behaviour which scenario had previously occurred. Surprisingly, looking at the eye region was associated with poorer identification of the scenarios, and eye movement strategy varied depending on the event experienced by the person in the video. This suggests people flexibly deploy their attention using a retrodictive mindreading process to infer events.

Concepts: Psychology, Person, Eye, Visual perception, Thought, Individual, Reasoning, Parker Posey


The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of penetrating keratoplasties, at the University Eye Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany, using organ-cultured donor corneas and to identify preoperative risk factors, which may influence the event of graft failure.

Concepts: Risk, Cornea, Probability, Germany, Parker Posey, Fußball-Bundesliga, Munich, Gerd Müller


BACKGROUND: Visual loss in the wilderness setting is at best disabling and at worst potentially fatal. However many physicians have a poor knowledge of ophthalmology and the basic skills that could be applied in situations away from definitive care. METHOD: This paper is intended for physicians, interested non-medical people and expedition operators as a practical guide to the treatment and prevention of eye problems on expeditions. RESULTS: Some of the eye conditions described in this paper are unique to the high altitude setting, such as high altitude retinopathy and some could happen in any environment, such as trauma, dry eyes and contact lens problems. As with any aspect of an expedition, preparation is vital to prevent and avoid eye problems. It is therefore important that pre-existing ocular conditions are known about and appropriate drugs and equipment are available in expedition first aid kits. CONCLUSIONS: In the event of a visual problem, it is always better to be cautious and evacuate a patient rather than a risk a sight-threatening complication. However this paper should provide a non-ophthalmologist with the skills to treat the eye conditions described.

Concepts: Eye, Visual perception, Visual acuity, Cornea, Ophthalmology, Lens, Rod cell, Parker Posey