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Concept: Park and ride


Promoting active commuting is viewed as one strategy to increase physical activity and improve the energy balance of more sedentary individuals thereby improving health outcomes. However, the potential effectiveness of promotion policies may be seriously undermined by the endogenous choice of commute mode. Policy to promote active commuting will be most effective if it can be demonstrated that 1) those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity, and 2) that current active commuting is not explained by unobserved characteristics that may be the true source of a lower body mass index (BMI).

Concepts: Energy, Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Cycling, Automobile, Sustainable transport, Park and ride


With an increasing proportion of the population living in cities, mass transportation has been rapidly expanding to facilitate the demand, yet there is a concern that mass transit has the potential to result in excessive exposure to noise, and subsequently noise-induced hearing loss.

Concepts: Transportation, Sustainable transport, Public transport, Train station, Public transport timetable, Park and ride


We measured real-time exposure to PM(2.5), ultrafine PM (particle number) and carbon monoxide (CO) for commuting workers school children, and traffic police, in Jakarta, Indonesia. In total, we measured exposures for 36 individuals covering 93days. Commuters in private cars experienced mean (st dev) exposures of 22 (9.4) ppm CO, 91 (38) μg/m(3)PM(2.5), and 290 (150)×10(3) particlescm(-3). Mean concentrations were higher in public transport than in private cars for PM(2.5) (difference in means: 22%) and particle counts (54%), but not CO, likely reflecting in-vehicle particle losses in private cars owing to air-conditioning. However, average commute times were longer for private car commuters than public transport commuters (in our sample, 24% longer: 3.0 vs. 2.3h per day). Commute and traffic-related exposures experienced by Jakarta residents are among the highest in the world, owing to high on-road concentrations and multi-hour commutes.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Mode, Arithmetic mean, Carbon monoxide, Mean, Automobile, Commuting, Park and ride


Urbanization is an important factor contributing to the global spread of dengue in recent decades, especially in tropical regions. However, the impact of public transportation system on local spread of dengue in urban settings remains poorly understood, due to the difficulty in collecting relevant locality, transportation and disease incidence data with sufficient detail, and in suitably quantifying the combined effect of proximity and passenger flow. We quantify proximity and passenger traffic data relating to 2014-2015 dengue outbreaks in Kaohsiung, Taiwan by introducing a “Risk Associated with Metro Passengers Presence” (RAMPP), which considers the passenger traffic of stations located within a fixed radius, giving more weight to the busier and/or closer stations. In order to analyze the contagion risk associated with nearby presence of one or more Kaohsiung Rapid Transit (KRT) stations, we cluster the Li’s (the fourth level administrative subdivision in Taiwan) of Kaohsiung based on their RAMPP value using the K-means algorithm. We then perform analysis of variance on distinct clusterings and detect significant differences for both years. The subsequent post hoc tests (Dunn) show that yearly incidence rate observed in the areas with highest RAMPP values is always significantly greater than that recorded with smaller RAMPP values. RAMPP takes into account of population mobility in urban settings via the use of passenger traffic information of urban transportation system, that captures the simple but important idea that large amount of passenger flow in and out of a station can dramatically increase the contagion risk of dengue in the neighborhood. Our study provides a new perspective in identifying high-risk areas for transmissions and thus enhances our understanding of how public rapid transit system contributes to disease spread in densely populated urban areas, which could be useful in the design of more effective and timely intervention and control measures for future outbreaks.

Concepts: Airport, Public transport, Rapid transit, Commuter rail, Mark Ovenden, Public transport timetable, Rail transport, Park and ride


Although commuting provides an opportunity for incorporating physical activity into daily routines, little is known about the effect of active commuting upon depressive symptoms. This study aimed to determine whether changes in commute mode are associated with differences in the severity of depressive symptoms in working adults. Commuters were selected from the UK Biobank cohort if they completed ≥2 assessment centre visits between 2006 and 2016. Modes of travel to work were self-reported at each visit. Participants were categorised as ‘inactive’ (car only) or ‘active’ commuters (any other mode(s), including walking, cycling and public transport). Transitions between categories were defined between pairs of visits. The severity of depressive symptoms was defined using the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Scores were derived between zero and six. Higher values indicate more severe symptoms. Separate analyses were conducted in commuters who were asymptomatic (zero score) and symptomatic (non-zero score) at baseline. The analytical sample comprised 5474 participants aged 40-75 at baseline with a mean follow-up of 4.65 years. Asymptomatic commuters who transitioned from inactive to active commuting reported less severe symptoms at follow-up than those who remained inactive (β -0.10, 95% CI [-0.20, 0.00]; N = 3145). A similar but non-significant relationship is evident among commuters with pre-existing symptoms (β -0.60, 95% CI [-1.27, 0.08]; N = 1078). After adjusting for transition category, longer commutes at baseline were associated with worse depressive symptoms at follow-up among symptomatic participants. Shifting from exclusive car use towards more active commuting may help prevent and attenuate depressive symptoms in working adults.

Concepts: Cycling, Travel, Transportation, Train, Bicycle, Commuting, Mode of transport, Park and ride


BACKGROUND: Perceptions of the environment appear to be associated with walking and cycling. We investigated the reasons for walking and cycling to or from work despite reporting an unsupportive route environment in a sample of commuters. METHODS: This mixed-method analysis used data collected as part of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. 1164 participants completed questionnaires which assessed the travel modes used and time spent on the commute and the perceived environmental conditions on the route to work. A subset of 50 also completed qualitative interviews in which they discussed their experiences of commuting. Participants were included in this analysis if they reported unsupportive conditions for walking or cycling on their route (e.g. heavy traffic) in questionnaires, walked or cycled all or part of the journey to work, and completed qualitative interviews. Using content analysis of these interviews, we investigated their reasons for walking or cycling. RESULTS: 340 participants reported walking or cycling on the journey to work despite unsupportive conditions, of whom 15 also completed qualitative interviews. From these, three potential explanations emerged. First, some commuters found strategies for coping with unsupportive conditions. Participants described knowledge of the locality and opportunities for alternative routes more conducive to active commuting, as well as their cycling experience and acquired confidence to cycle in heavy traffic. Second, some commuters had other reasons for being reliant on or preferring active commuting despite adverse environments, such as childcare arrangements, enjoyment, having more control over their journey time, employers' restrictions on car parking, or the cost of petrol or parking. Finally, some survey respondents appeared to have reported not their own environmental perceptions but those of others such as family members or ‘the public’, partly to make a political statement regarding the adversity of active commuting in their setting. CONCLUSIONS: Participants report walking and cycling to work despite adverse environmental conditions. Understanding this resilience might be just as important as investigating ‘barriers’ to cycling. These findings suggest that developing knowledge of safe walking and cycling routes, improving cycling confidence and restricting workplace parking may help to encourage walking and cycling to and from work.

Concepts: Environment, Natural environment, Environmental science, Automobile, Bicycle, Commuting, Park and ride, Journey to work


The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC) and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties. We found that the average AC rates were 3.44% rural and 2.77% urban (p<0.01) for walking to work, 0.40% rural and 0.58% urban (p<0.01) for biking to work, and 0.59% rural and 5.86% urban (p<0.01) for public transportation to work. Some environmental variables had similar relationships with AC in rural and urban tracts, such as a negative association between tract greenness and prevalence of walking to work. Others had opposite correlational directions for rural vs. urban, such as street connectivity for walking to work and population density for both walking to work and public transportation to work. We concluded that rurality is an important moderator in AC-environment relationships. In developing strategies to promote AC, attention needs to be paid to rural-urban differences to avoid unintended consequences.

Concepts: Population, Cycling, Walking, Automobile, Sustainable transport, Public transport, Landscape, Park and ride


Although mass transit systems are convenient and efficient for urban people, little attention has been paid to the potential hearing hazard from their noise. The purpose of the current study was to measure and analyze levels of subway interior noise at peak commuter times and to provide information about commuters' daily dose of noise exposure.

Concepts: Urban planning, Public transport, Commuter rail, Public transport timetable, Park and ride


The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality.

Concepts: Air pollution, Metropolitan area, Public transport, Rapid transit, Commuter rail, Mark Ovenden, Park and ride, Light rail


An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT) use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC) behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes.

Concepts: Road transport, Transportation, Sustainable transport, Public transport, Train station, Public transport timetable, Park and ride