SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Park and ride

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Promoting active commuting is viewed as one strategy to increase physical activity and improve the energy balance of more sedentary individuals thereby improving health outcomes. However, the potential effectiveness of promotion policies may be seriously undermined by the endogenous choice of commute mode. Policy to promote active commuting will be most effective if it can be demonstrated that 1) those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity, and 2) that current active commuting is not explained by unobserved characteristics that may be the true source of a lower body mass index (BMI).

Concepts: Energy, Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Cycling, Automobile, Sustainable transport, Park and ride

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We measured real-time exposure to PM(2.5), ultrafine PM (particle number) and carbon monoxide (CO) for commuting workers school children, and traffic police, in Jakarta, Indonesia. In total, we measured exposures for 36 individuals covering 93days. Commuters in private cars experienced mean (st dev) exposures of 22 (9.4) ppm CO, 91 (38) μg/m(3)PM(2.5), and 290 (150)×10(3) particlescm(-3). Mean concentrations were higher in public transport than in private cars for PM(2.5) (difference in means: 22%) and particle counts (54%), but not CO, likely reflecting in-vehicle particle losses in private cars owing to air-conditioning. However, average commute times were longer for private car commuters than public transport commuters (in our sample, 24% longer: 3.0 vs. 2.3h per day). Commute and traffic-related exposures experienced by Jakarta residents are among the highest in the world, owing to high on-road concentrations and multi-hour commutes.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Mode, Arithmetic mean, Carbon monoxide, Mean, Automobile, Commuting, Park and ride

23

Urbanization is an important factor contributing to the global spread of dengue in recent decades, especially in tropical regions. However, the impact of public transportation system on local spread of dengue in urban settings remains poorly understood, due to the difficulty in collecting relevant locality, transportation and disease incidence data with sufficient detail, and in suitably quantifying the combined effect of proximity and passenger flow. We quantify proximity and passenger traffic data relating to 2014-2015 dengue outbreaks in Kaohsiung, Taiwan by introducing a “Risk Associated with Metro Passengers Presence” (RAMPP), which considers the passenger traffic of stations located within a fixed radius, giving more weight to the busier and/or closer stations. In order to analyze the contagion risk associated with nearby presence of one or more Kaohsiung Rapid Transit (KRT) stations, we cluster the Li’s (the fourth level administrative subdivision in Taiwan) of Kaohsiung based on their RAMPP value using the K-means algorithm. We then perform analysis of variance on distinct clusterings and detect significant differences for both years. The subsequent post hoc tests (Dunn) show that yearly incidence rate observed in the areas with highest RAMPP values is always significantly greater than that recorded with smaller RAMPP values. RAMPP takes into account of population mobility in urban settings via the use of passenger traffic information of urban transportation system, that captures the simple but important idea that large amount of passenger flow in and out of a station can dramatically increase the contagion risk of dengue in the neighborhood. Our study provides a new perspective in identifying high-risk areas for transmissions and thus enhances our understanding of how public rapid transit system contributes to disease spread in densely populated urban areas, which could be useful in the design of more effective and timely intervention and control measures for future outbreaks.

Concepts: Airport, Public transport, Rapid transit, Commuter rail, Mark Ovenden, Public transport timetable, Rail transport, Park and ride

4

BACKGROUND: Perceptions of the environment appear to be associated with walking and cycling. We investigated the reasons for walking and cycling to or from work despite reporting an unsupportive route environment in a sample of commuters. METHODS: This mixed-method analysis used data collected as part of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. 1164 participants completed questionnaires which assessed the travel modes used and time spent on the commute and the perceived environmental conditions on the route to work. A subset of 50 also completed qualitative interviews in which they discussed their experiences of commuting. Participants were included in this analysis if they reported unsupportive conditions for walking or cycling on their route (e.g. heavy traffic) in questionnaires, walked or cycled all or part of the journey to work, and completed qualitative interviews. Using content analysis of these interviews, we investigated their reasons for walking or cycling. RESULTS: 340 participants reported walking or cycling on the journey to work despite unsupportive conditions, of whom 15 also completed qualitative interviews. From these, three potential explanations emerged. First, some commuters found strategies for coping with unsupportive conditions. Participants described knowledge of the locality and opportunities for alternative routes more conducive to active commuting, as well as their cycling experience and acquired confidence to cycle in heavy traffic. Second, some commuters had other reasons for being reliant on or preferring active commuting despite adverse environments, such as childcare arrangements, enjoyment, having more control over their journey time, employers' restrictions on car parking, or the cost of petrol or parking. Finally, some survey respondents appeared to have reported not their own environmental perceptions but those of others such as family members or ‘the public’, partly to make a political statement regarding the adversity of active commuting in their setting. CONCLUSIONS: Participants report walking and cycling to work despite adverse environmental conditions. Understanding this resilience might be just as important as investigating ‘barriers’ to cycling. These findings suggest that developing knowledge of safe walking and cycling routes, improving cycling confidence and restricting workplace parking may help to encourage walking and cycling to and from work.

Concepts: Environment, Natural environment, Environmental science, Automobile, Bicycle, Commuting, Park and ride, Journey to work

0

An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT) use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC) behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes.

Concepts: Road transport, Transportation, Sustainable transport, Public transport, Train station, Public transport timetable, Park and ride

0

A study on a commuter’s exposure to black carbon (BC) in five different traffic modes (taxi, bus, subway, cycling and walking) was conducted in Xuhui District, Shanghai. A commuter’s real-time exposure concentrations were recorded by MicroAeth AE51 BC monitors, and the average BC exposure concentration and inhalation dose were analyzed. Data collected by cyclist was applied to characterize the micro-variability in relation to traffic density and street topology. The distance to the traffic and the street topology as well as the volume of heavy diesel trucks were the dominant factors influencing the BC concentrations. In this study, a high variability of BC concentrations between streets and even within streets was observed, and also between days and hour of the day. The average BC exposure concentrations were 5.59±1.02μg/m(3), 6.58±1.78μg/m(3), 7.28±1.87μg/m(3), 8.62±4.13μg/m(3) and 9.43±2.89μg/m(3) for walking, cycling, bus, taxi and subway trips, respectively. Exposure levels of in-vehicle microenvironments were 8.66±3.66μg/m(3), 9.39±6.98μg/m(3) and 10.96±2.72μg/m(3) for bus, taxi and subway, respectively. While inhalation doses were 0.68±0.33μg, 0.95±0.29μg, 1.36±0.37μg, 1.50±0.39μg and 1.58±0.29μg for taxi, subway, cycling, bus and walking, respectively. BC exposure level of walking was the lowest among all the traffic modes, but its inhalation dose was the highest.

Concepts: Road, Sustainable transport, Bus, Public transport, Shanghai, Bicycle, Park and ride, Xuhui District

0

Promoting active commuting by walking or biking to and from school could increase physical activity and reduce obesity among youth. However, exposure to the retail food environment while commuting may lead to greater dietary intake among active commuters.

Concepts: Nutrition, Physical exercise, Cycling, Sustainability, Automobile, Sustainable transport, Bicycle, Park and ride

0

The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors.

Concepts: Psychology, Participation, Employment, Household, Behavior, Suburb, Commuting, Park and ride

0

The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors.

Concepts: Psychology, Participation, Employment, Household, Behavior, Suburb, Commuting, Park and ride

0

OBJECTIVE: Small increases in walking or cycling for transport could contribute to population health improvement. We explore the individual, workplace and environmental characteristics associated with the incorporation of walking and cycling into car journeys. METHODS: In 2009, participants from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (UK) reported transport modes used on the commute in the last week as well as individual, workplace and environmental characteristics. Logistic regression was used to assess the explanatory variables associated with incorporating walking or cycling into car commuting journeys. RESULTS: 31% of car commuters (n=419, mean age 43.3 years, SD 0.3) regularly incorporated walking or cycling into their commute. Those without access to car parking at work (OR:26.0, 95% CI:11.8 to 57.2) and who reported most supportive environments for walking and cycling en route to work (highest versus lowest tertile, OR: 2.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.5) were more likely to incorporate walking or cycling into their car journeys. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that provide pleasant and convenient routes, limit or charge for workplace car parking and provide free off-site car parking may encourage car commuters to incorporate walking and cycling into car journeys. The effects of such interventions remain to be evaluated.

Concepts: Cycling, Transport, Transportation, Automobile, Sustainable transport, Bicycle, Commuting, Park and ride