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Concept: Paris


A lack of written sources is a serious obstacle in the reconstruction of the medieval trade of art and art materials, and in the identification of artists, workshop locations, and trade routes. We use the isotopes of sulfur, oxygen, and strontium (S, O, Sr) present in gypsum alabaster to unambiguously link ancient European source quarries and areas to alabaster artworks produced over five centuries (12th-17th) held by the Louvre museum in Paris and other European and American collections. Three principal alabaster production areas are identified, in central England, northern Spain, and a major, long-lived but little-documented alabaster trade radiating from the French Alps. The related trade routes are mostly fluvial, although terrestrial transport crossing the major river basin borders is also confirmed by historical sources. Our study also identifies recent artwork restoration using Italian alabaster and provides a robust geochemical framework for provenancing, including recognition of restoration and forgeries.

Concepts: Europe, Spain, French language, France, Art, Paris, Gypsum, Louvre


Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Europe, Cycling, Particulate, Air pollution, Global warming, Paris, Bicycle


Despite numerous sites of great antiquity having been excavated since the end of the 19th century, Middle Pleistocene human fossils are still extremely rare in northwestern Europe. Apart from the two partial crania from Biache-Saint-Vaast in northern France, all known human fossils from this period have been found from ten sites in either Germany or England. Here we report the discovery of three long bones from the same left upper limb discovered at the open-air site of Tourville-la-Rivière in the Seine Valley of northern France. New U-series and combined US-ESR dating on animal teeth produced an age range for the site of 183 to 236 ka. In combination with paleoecological indicators, they indicate an age toward the end of MIS 7. The human remains from Tourville-la-Rivière are attributable to the Neandertal lineage based on morphological and metric analyses. An abnormal crest on the left humerus represents a deltoid muscle enthesis. Micro- and or macro-traumas connected to repetitive movements similar to those documented for professional throwing athletes could be origin of abnormality.

Concepts: Middle Ages, Humerus, France, Neanderthal, Paris, Rouen, Seine, Seine-Maritime


Sub-Saharan African migrant women are a key population at risk of HIV infection in Europe. Using data from the ANRS-PARCOURS study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of forced sex after migration and its association with post-migration acquisition of HIV as well as the circumstances of forced sex after migration, including housing and administrative insecurity, among sub-Saharan African migrant women living in the Paris Region, France.

Concepts: AIDS, Sexual intercourse, Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Black people, Immigration, Île-de-France, Paris


In this paper, we characterise tourists most likely to visit a coastal destination by high-speed rail (HSR). Our data came from a survey conducted among HSR passengers during 2014’s high season (July and August) at Spain’s Camp de Tarragona and Alicante Stations, each of which is near a mass tourism destination on the Mediterranean coast: the Costa Daurada and the Costa Blanca, respectively. We used responses to the survey, which presented binary discrete-choice situations, to construct a database necessary for a logistic regression model that allowed us to examine how passenger profile, trip characteristics, and stay conditions influenced the use of HSR services on visits to each coastal destination. Results highlighted significant differences in the profiles of tourists who arrived at each destination by HSR and, in turn, that no specific tourist profile is associated with HSR, even for two stations that serve sunny beach destinations. Among its implications, to analyse travellers that HSR can attract, it is vital to consider the specific characteristics of each destination and its current market.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Mediterranean Sea, Spain, Tourism, Paris, Rail transport, High-speed rail, Alicante


Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th “Paris International Conference in Intensive Care”, whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was “Breakthrough in cardiac arrest”, with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Public health, Health, Epidemiology, Intensive care medicine, Operations research, Paris


Nitrite is a toxic intermediate compound in the nitrogen (N) cycle. Elevated concentrations of nitrite have been observed in the Seine River, raising questions about its sources and fate. Here, we assess the role of bottom sediments as potential sources or sinks of nitrite along the river continuum. Sediment cores were collected from two depocenters, one located upstream, the other downstream, from the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) servicing the conurbation of Paris. Pore water profiles of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were measured. Ammonium, nitrate and nitrite fluxes across the sediment-water interface (SWI) were determined in separate core incubation experiments. The data were interpreted with a one-dimensional, multi-component reactive transport model, which accounts for the production and consumption of nitrite through nitrification, denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In all core incubation experiments, nitrate uptake by the sediments was observed, indicative of high rates of denitrification. In contrast, for both sampling locations, the sediments in cores collected in August 2012 acted as sinks for nitrite, but those collected in October 2013 released nitrite to the overlying water. The model results suggest that the first step of nitrification generated most pore water nitrite at the two locations. While nitrification was also the main pathway consuming nitrite in the sediments upstream of the WWTP, anammox dominated nitrite removal at the downstream site. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the magnitude and direction of the benthic nitrite fluxes most strongly depend on bottom water oxygenation and the deposition flux of labile organic matter.

Concepts: Bacteria, Nitrogen, Sewage treatment, Wastewater, Denitrification, Paris, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen metabolism


On Friday November 13th at 9:20 pm, three kamikaze bombs went off around the Stade de France a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris, 4 different shootings took place and bombings in Paris and hundreds of people were held hostage in a theater.This multi-site terrorist attack was the first of this magnitude in France. Drawing the lessons of these attacks and those which occurred in other countries from a health perspective is essential to continuously adapt and improve the French response to possible future attacks.Several issues would need to be further explored: Management of uncertainties: When to trigger the plans: after the 1st attack, the 2nd? When do attacks end and when to release mobilized resources? Management of victims: How to ensure that all victims are secured or taken care of? How to provide assistance when attacks are ongoing? Management of teams: Proper follow-up of persons involved in the response: health professionals, police and firemen, emergency call centers but also civil servants within administration that contributed to the response. Communication: Reactivity of all is a key element to secure appropriate resource is mobilized for the response. All actors have to be able to communicate quickly in a secured way.

Concepts: French language, France, Terrorism, Paris, Top 14, 1998 FIFA World Cup, Stade de France, Saint-Denis


With the development of information and communication technologies, telemedicine has been proposed as a way to improve patient management by facilitating access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The Paris Ile de France Regional Health Agency is currently funding a comprehensive program of telemedicine experiments. This article describes the protocols for the evaluation of the implementation of telemedicine in the Paris region.

Concepts: France, Île-de-France, Paris, Regions of France, Seine-Saint-Denis, Air France, Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne


This study is intended to examine the quality and quantity of floating plastic debris in the River Seine through use of an extensive regional network of floating debris-retention booms; it is one of the first attempts to provide reliable information on such debris at a large regional scale. Plastic debris represented between 0.8% and 5.1% of total debris collected by weight. A significant proportion consisted of food wrappers/containers and plastic cutlery, probably originating from voluntary or involuntary dumping, urban discharges and surface runoff. Most plastic items are made of polypropylene, polyethylene and, to a lesser extent, polyethylene terephthalate. By extrapolation, some 27 tons of floating plastic debris are intercepted annually by this network; corresponding to 2.3 g per Parisian inhabitant per year. Such data could serve to provide a first evaluation of floating plastic inputs conveyed by rivers.

Concepts: Surface runoff, Paris, Seine, Rive Gauche