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Concept: Paraffin


This article is an introduction and general discussion regarding the use of Fisher-Tropsch wax in petroleum jelly applications. Traditionally, petroleum jelly is prepared from a blend of microwax, paraffin wax and mineral oil that are all derived from crude oil. Sasol Wax has successfully prepared a petroleum jelly based on predominantly to fully synthetic Fisher-Tropsch wax. Sasol Wax was awarded a patent P53898ZP00-29 November 11 for a predominantly to fully synthetic petroleum jelly based on Fisher-Tropsch wax blends. The benefits of Fisher-Tropsch wax discussed in this article include the absence of aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds in Fisher-Tropsch wax as well as the sustainable production that is possible with Fisher-Tropsch wax, as opposed to paraffin wax that may be affected by the closure of group I Base Oil plants. This article will be the first in a series of articles from the same authors, and follow-up articles will include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallization studies to determine the influence of predominantly synthetic waxes on petroleum jelly network structures compared with more traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies, final product performance and stability of synthetic petroleum jelly used in, for example, personal care lotions or creams. The influence of oxygenated compounds and product safety and rheological properties (including primary skin feel upon application and secondary skin feel after application) of synthetic petroleum jellies compared with traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies are discussed.

Concepts: Petroleum, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon, Paraffin, Wax, Alkane, Beeswax, Mineral oil


Tissue microarrays were originally developed to enable alignment of multiple tissue cores in a single paraffin block and to enable high-throughput laboratory analysis. However, a major drawback is the loss of tissue cores during slide preparation, especially when sectioning the tissue block. Tissue cylinders directly aligned in the metal box without preheating tend to detach from the surrounding paraffin, which results in incomplete or folded tissue sections. The proposed solution is preheating all tissue cylinders on a hot plate to facilitate fusion between the paraffin within the core and the paraffin surrounding the core. In this study, 6 tissue microarray blocks were constructed from 528 tissue cores extracted from various formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissue samples. The tissue cores in the arrays revealed good homogenization with the surrounding paraffin wax, and the tissue sections were obtained intact. Both hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining confirmed satisfactory results. This simple and economical method is easily performed in the laboratory without expensive instrumentation.

Concepts: Histology, Immunohistochemistry, Paraffin, Tissue, Staining, Microarray, Array, Tissue microarray


Rapid advancements in carbon-based fillers have enabled a new and more promising platform in the development of electromagnetic attenuation composites. Alignment of fillers in composites with specific structures and morphologies has been widely pursued to achieve high performance based on taking advantage of unique filler characteristics. In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG), obtained from direct exfoliation of graphite, was fabricated into paraffin wax to prepare FLG/wax composites and investigate their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance. The as-exfoliated FLG/wax samples have shown much improved EMI performance compared to the commercial graphite/wax ones. For further improvement of EMI shielding performance, split-press-merge approaches were applied to align the FLG fillers to achieve anisotropic characteristics in the plane perpendicular to the pressing direction. Much enhanced EMI shielding performance coupled with an improvement in absorption and reflection was observed in the post-alignment FLG/wax composites. An average interparticle distance model associated with improved electrically conducting interconnection and enlarged effective reflection regions with respect to enhanced reflection efficiency were discussed. The results suggest a platform and promising opportunities for preparing high-performance EMI shielding composites.

Concepts: Paraffin, Wax, Alkane, Graphene, Plane, Electromagnetic interference, Beeswax, Candle


Infrared microspectroscopy is an emerging approach for disease analysis owing to its capability for in situ chemical characterization of pathological processes. Synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) provides ultra-high spatial resolution for profiling biochemical events associated with disease progression. Spectral alterations were observed in cultured oral cells derived from healthy, precancerous, primary, and metastatic cancers. An innovative wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging method for the detection of oral precancer and cancer was demonstrated successfully. The approach is based on determining the residual amount of paraffin wax (C(25)H(52)) or beeswax (C(46)H(92)O(2)) on a sample surface after xylene washing. This amount is used as a signpost of the degree of physisorption that altered during malignant transformation. The results of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of oral cell lines indicated that the methylene (CH(2)) and methyl group (CH(3)) stretching vibrations in the range of 3,000-2,800 cm(-1) have the highest accuracy rate (89.6 %) to discriminate the healthy keratinocytes (NHOK) from cancer cells. The results of wax-physisorption-based FTIR imaging showed a stronger physisorption with beeswax in oral precancerous and cancer cells as compared with that of NHOK, which showed a strong capability with paraffin wax. The infrared kinetic study of oral cavity tissue showed a consistency in the wax physisorption of the cell lines. On the basis of our findings, these results show the potential use of wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging for the early screening of oral cancer lesions and the chemical changes during oral carcinogenesis.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Carcinoma in situ, Paraffin, Wax, Beeswax, Candle


The applications of superhydrophobic coatings in daily life are receiving increasing attention. Here, we report a general approach for preparing superhydrophobic coatings with high repellency to daily consumed liquid foods based on food grade waxes. The coatings are prepared by spray-coating the homogeneous wax suspensions in ethanol followed by annealing at 40 °C. The wax suspensions are formed by the heating dissolution-cooling precipitation-ultrasonication process thanks to the unique solubility of the waxes in ethanol. Ultrasonication of the wax suspension is helpful to improve superhydrophobicity by reducing the size of the wax microplatelets. Annealing at 40 °C could enhance mechanical stability of the coatings. The coatings are superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 158.2° and a sliding angle of 7.3°. The coatings are resistant to intense water jetting and immersion in corrosive aqueous solutions. In addition, the coatings show excellent anti-adhesive properties for various liquid foods including cola, honey, milk and yoghourt. Moreover, the coatings are applicable onto different substrates (e.g., glass slide, PET plate and polyethylene plate) and could be prepared using different waxes (e.g., paraffin wax, beeswax and microcrystalline wax). We believe that the wax superhydrophobic coatings could find applications in various fields such as anti-adhesion of liquid foods, fruit preservation and anti-bioadhesion, etc.

Concepts: Paraffin, Wax, Alkane, Solution, Beeswax, Waxes, Candle, Microcrystalline wax


The absence of thermal fluctuations at T = 0 makes it possible to observe the inherently quantum mechanical nature of systems where the competition among correlations leads to different types of collective ground states. Our high precision measurements of the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity in the layered compound YFe2Al10 demonstrate robust field-temperature scaling, evidence that this system is naturally poised without tuning on the verge of ferromagnetic order that occurs exactly at T = 0, where magnetic fields drive the system away from this quantum critical point and restore normal metallic behavior.

Concepts: Electromagnetism, Quantum mechanics, Condensed matter physics, Heat, Paraffin, Physical quantities, Superconductivity, Quantum critical point


Today the high demand for electronics leads to massive production of waste, thus green materials based electronic devices are becoming more important for environmental protection and sustainability. The biomaterial based hydrogels are widely used in tissue engineering, but their uses in photonics are limited. In this study, silk fibroin protein in hydrogel form is explored as a bio-friendly alternative to conventional polymers for lens applications in light-emitting diodes. The concentration of silk fibroin protein and crosslinking agent had direct effects on optical properties of silk hydrogel. The spatial radiation intensity distribution was controlled via dome- and crater-type silk-hydrogel lenses. The hydrogel lens showed a light extraction efficiency over 0.95 on a warm white LED. The stability of silk hydrogel lens is enhanced approximately three-folds by using a biocompatible/biodegradable poly(ester-urethane) coating and more than three orders of magnitude by using an edible paraffin wax coating. Therefore, biomaterial lenses show promise for green optoelectronic applications.

Concepts: Optics, Light, Paraffin, Wax, Light-emitting diode, Diode, Electronics, Beeswax


Paraffin wax (PW) is widely used for smart thermo-regulation materials due to its good thermal performance. However, the leakage and low thermal conductivity of the PW suppress its application in the heat storage field. Accordingly, developing effective methods to address these issues is of great importance. In this study, we explored a facile approach to obtain PW-loaded core-sheath structured flexible nanofibers film via coaxial electrospinning technique. The PW as the core layer was successfully encapsulated by the sheath layer PMMA. The diameter of fiber core increased from 395 nm to 848 nm as the core solution speed rate increased from 0.1 ml/h to 0.5 ml/h. In addition, it can be seen that the higher core solution speed rate could lead to higher PW encapsulation efficiency according to the TEM results. The core-sheath nanofibers films, moreover, possessed the highest latent heat of 58.25 J/g and solidifying enthalpy of 56.49 J/g. Also, we found that after 200 thermal cycles, there was little change in latent heat, which demonstrated it is beneficial for the PW-loaded core-sheath structure to overcome the leakage issue and enhance thermal stability properties for the thermo-regulation film.

Concepts: Energy, Thermodynamics, Heat, Paraffin, Wax, Thermal conductivity, Specific heat capacity, Beeswax


Sixteen weaned male Alpine kids (Capra hircus) were subjected to a 21-day oral daily exposure of 0.05 mg kg-1 BW. d-1 of chlordecone (CLD) and 0.30 μg kg-1 BW. d-1 of each non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs, congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). Four kids, identified as the CONTA group, were slaughtered at the end of the exposure, while the remaining animals (n = 12) were fed with specific diets for an additional 21-day decontamination period before slaughtering. Kids from the DECONTA (n = 4) group were fed a control diet, while those from the AC10% and PO8% group received pellets supplemented with 10% activated carbon (AC) and 8% paraffin oil (PO), respectively. CLD and NDL-PCB levels in blood, liver, peri-renal fat and muscles from different groups were analysed to compare the decontamination dynamics of the pollutants and to determine the efficiency of AC and PO to decrease the body levels of pollutants. After the decontamination period, the CLD levels considerably decreased (more than 60%) in blood, liver, muscles and fat. Concerning NDL-PCBs, the decontamination process was much lower. Overall, CLD appeared to be less retained in kids' organism compared with NDL-PCBs, and the decontamination dynamics of these pollutants appeared to be different because of their specific physicochemical properties and lipophilicity. Furthermore, the dietary supplementation with AC or PO did not significantly affect the decontamination dynamics.

Concepts: Glucose, Fat, Carbon, Physical chemistry, Paraffin, Diet, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Activated carbon


Ameloblastoma is a mostly benign, but locally invasive odontogenic tumor eliciting frequent relapses and significant morbidity. Recently, mutually exclusive mutations in BRAF and SMO were identified causing constitutive activation of MAPK and hedgehog signaling pathways. To explore further such clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlations, we here comprehensively analyzed a large series of ameloblastomas (98 paraffin block of 76 patients) with respect to genomic alterations, clinical presentation, and histological features collected from the archives of three different pathology centers in France, Germany, and Turkey. In good agreement with previously published data, we observed BRAF mutations almost exclusively in mandibular tumors, SMO mutations predominantly in maxillary tumors, and single mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and NRAS. KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, CDKN2A, FGFR, and CTNNB1 mutations co-occurred in the background of either BRAF or SMO mutations. Strikingly, multiple mutations were exclusively observed in European patients, in solid ameloblastomas and were associated with a very high risk for recurrence. In contrast, tumors with a single BRAF mutation revealed a lower risk for relapse. We here establish a comprehensive landscape of mutations in the MAPK and hedgehog signaling pathways relating to clinical features of ameloblastoma. Our data suggest that ameloblastomas harboring single BRAF mutations are excellent candidates for neo-adjuvant therapies with combined BRAF/MEK inhibitors and that the risk of recurrence maybe stratified based on the mutational spectrum.

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Mutation, Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Benign tumor, Tumor, Paraffin