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Concept: Paraaortic lymph node

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The current study sought to assess the role of paraaortic lymphadenectomy (LNE) in females with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer of stage IA to II preoperatively, between 2009 and 2011 was conducted. Patients were included who had suffered from endometrial cancer without preoperative adjuvant therapy and who underwent hysterectomy plus systematic pelvic LNE and paraaortic LNE by laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 54 patients who underwent surgery for preoperative endometrial cancer were selected. All patients underwent LNE. The incidences of pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastases were 11.1% (6/54) and 7.4% (4/54), with a total positive lymph node rate of 14.8% (8/54). In addition, among the 8 positive cases, 5 patients underwent laparotomy and 3 underwent laparoscopy; 3 cases were classified as stage I and 5 as stage II preoperatively. Of these, 7 patients were identified with pathology-related risk factors, including low differentiation or clear cell adenocarcinoma postoperatively. Discordance of pathological differentiation between the pre- and postoperative stages reached 57.1% (4/7). The results revealed the high occurrence of positive lymph nodes in endometrial cancer which demonstrate the importance of systematic LNE. Additonally, no severe complications were caused by LNE besides lymph cysts. In summary, it is neccesary to perform LNE, particularly the removal of the paraaortic lymph node, in patients with endometrial cancers in order to improve postoperative therapy. Laparoscopy has similar surgical effects as laparotomy, but has a number of advantages.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Surgery, Endometrial cancer, Paraaortic lymph node

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The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult metastasis, including isolated tumor cells, in para-aortic lymph nodes of patients with stage IIIC1 endometrial cancer who underwent pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Tumor, Neoplasm, Paraaortic lymph node

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OBJECTIVE: Patients with endometrial cancer with positive lymph nodes (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIC) have a substantially worse prognosis. This study investigates how tumor characteristics and adjuvant treatments influence overall survival (OS) in stage IIIC patients. METHODS: This multi-institution, institutional review board-approved study is a retrospective review of 116 patients with surgically staged endometrial cancer with positive lymph nodes treated from 1995 to 2008. The study cohort was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS and proportional hazard modeling. RESULTS: The 5-year OS for all patients was 51%. Administration of adjuvant therapy was associated with improved OS when compared with surgery alone (P = 0.007). Five-year OS was 40% for patients treated with surgery alone (n = 26), 50% with surgery and chemotherapy (n = 8), 58% with surgery and radiotherapy (n = 43), and 54% with surgery followed by both radiotherapy and chemotherapy (n = 39). Patients who received radiotherapy (n = 82) had improved OS (57%) when compared with patients who did not (n = 34, OS = 42%; P = 0.001). Radiotherapy was associated with improved OS for patients with endometrioid histology, high-grade tumors, and positive para-aortic lymph nodes. Patients with nonendometrioid histology and low-grade tumors who received radiotherapy had a similar OS as those who did not. High-grade tumors (P < 0.001), nonendometrioid histology (P = 0.004), and more than 2 positive lymph nodes (P = 0.01) were associated with a poorer OS. After controlling for patient demographics and tumor characteristics, patients with high-grade tumors and more than 2 positive lymph nodes had a poorer OS, whereas patients who received radiotherapy had improved OS. CONCLUSIONS: This large institutional study of patients with lymph node-positive endometrial cancer identified prognostic factors associated with a poor OS. Radiotherapy was associated with improved survival and may be specifically indicated for patients with endometrioid histology, high-grade tumors, and positive para-aortic lymph nodes. We recommend further investigation of adjuvant therapies in randomized clinical trials.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Cancer staging, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Paraaortic lymph node

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Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract and the fourth most common cancer overall. Approximately 20 % of patients with EC harbor disease outside the uterus, and 10 % of patients initially diagnosed with cancer confined to the uterus are found to have lymph node metastases. Para-aortic lymph node involvement occurs in approximately 7-8 % of EC patients overall and in about 50 % of patients with positive pelvic nodes. Metastases to the para-aortic lymph nodes are associated with poor prognosis. Factors associated with para-aortic lymph node dissemination include advanced stage, high histological grade, deep myometrial invasion, cervical involvement, lymphovascular space involvement, and the presence of pelvic lymph node metastases. Approximately 77 % of patients with para-aortic nodal involvement are found to have metastases above the level of the inferior mesenteric artery. Systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy with dissection optimally carried out to the renal vessels is important in high-risk patients in order to identify nodes present at distant sites, particularly above the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). While the definitive management of EC varies widely across the gynecological oncology community, there is a consensus that patients at risk for lymphatic metastases (high and intermediate risk) who are targeted with systematic lymphadenectomy may have an improved prognosis. Well-designed prospective studies evaluating the therapeutic role of systematic lymphadenectomy in EC are needed. Herein, we describe the role of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in the surgical staging of EC emphasizing its prerequisites, extent, and diagnostic and potential therapeutic advantages.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Endometrium, Lymph, Paraaortic lymph node

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The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and pathologic factors in patients with uterine serous carcinoma confined to the endometrium. A total of 236 uterine serous carcinoma patients from the pathology databases of 4 large academic institutions were included in the study. Clinical and pathologic variables were analyzed, including patient demographics, tumor size (≤2 vs. >2 cm), myometrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node status, tumor location (endometrium vs. polyp), cervical involvement, lower uterine segment involvement, FIGO stage, pelvic washings, recurrence, overall survival, and progression-free survival. Of 236 patients, 55 (23%) had tumors limited to the endometrium. Forty-four patients (80%) had Stage IA tumors. The tumor was confined to a polyp in 17 (30.9%) patients. Twenty patients (36.4%) had tumor sizes >2 cm and 12 (21.8%) exhibited lymphovascular invasion. Only 3 patients (5.4 %) had cervical stromal involvement. Thirty-three (66%) patients underwent pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy with 2 positive para-aortic lymph nodes identified. Seven (12.7%) patients had positive washings, whereas 8 patients (14.5 %) had disease recurrence. At a median follow-up of 46 months, there was no difference in overall survival (P=0.216) or progression-free survival (P=0.063) between patients with tumors confined to a polyp, patients with tumors confined to the endometrium, and patients with tumors present in both polyp and the endometrium. Uterine serous carcinoma with only endometrial involvement, even when confined to a polyp, can be associated with poor prognosis, further stressing the importance of complete surgical staging and adjuvant treatment in this setting.

Concepts: Cancer, Lymph node, Endometrium, Lymph, Myometrium, Paraaortic lymph node

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To evaluate the prognostic effect of isolated paraaortic lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer (EC).

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Endometrial cancer, Paraaortic lymph node

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To determine, in patients with non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, 1) survival benefit associated with pelvic lymphadenectomy (LND), 2) survival benefit for para-aortic lymphadenectomy performed in addition to pelvic lymphadenectomy, and 3) association between number of lymph nodes removed and survival.

Concepts: Cancer, Carcinoma in situ, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Endometrial cancer, Lymph, Paraaortic lymph node

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Previous studies have investigated the anatomical distribution of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in patients with cervical cancer. However, an atlas for accurate clinical target volume (CTV) delineation has yet to be defined. The purpose of this study was to design and verify a computerized tomography (CT) atlas to provide guidance for contouring the PAN CTV in patients with cervical cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lymph node, Lymphoma, Lymph, Paraaortic lymph node, Lumbar lymph nodes

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Castleman’s disease of the kidney is extremely rare. We present a case of Castleman’s disease in the left kidney with multiple para-aortic enlarged lymph nodes. Both the renal lesion and para-aortic lymph nodes showed hypervascularity on enhanced CT and minimally increased FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT, mimicking renal cell carcinoma with para-aortic nodal metastases. This case suggests that Castleman’s disease should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in patients with a hypervascular and hypermetabolic renal lesion.

Concepts: Kidney, Cancer, Metastasis, Medical terms, Lymph node, Renin, Nephrectomy, Paraaortic lymph node

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The aim of this study was to confirm the incidence and implications of a lymphatic spread pattern involving para-aortic lymph node (PAN) metastasis in the absence of pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastasis in patients with endometrial cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Endometrial cancer, Lymph, Lymph vessel, Paraaortic lymph node