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Concept: Papillomavirus

244

BackgroundThe American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updates on cancer incidence and death rates and trends in these outcomes for the United States. This year’s report includes incidence trends for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination (recommended for adolescents aged 11-12 years).MethodsData on cancer incidence were obtained from the CDC, NCI, and NAACCR, and data on mortality were obtained from the CDC. Long- (1975/1992-2009) and short-term (2000-2009) trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and among women were examined by joinpoint analysis. Prevalence of HPV vaccination coverage during 2008 and 2010 and of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing during 2010 were obtained from national surveys.ResultsDeath rates continued to decline for all cancers combined for men and women of all major racial and ethnic groups and for most major cancer sites; rates for both sexes combined decreased by 1.5% per year from 2000 to 2009. Overall incidence rates decreased in men but stabilized in women. Incidence rates increased for two HPV-associated cancers (oropharynx, anus) and some cancers not associated with HPV (eg, liver, kidney, thyroid). Nationally, 32.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.3% to 33.6%) of girls aged 13 to 17 years in 2010 had received three doses of the HPV vaccine, and coverage was statistically significantly lower among the uninsured (14.1%, 95% CI = 9.4% to 20.6%) and in some Southern states (eg, 20.0% in Alabama [95% CI = 13.9% to 27.9%] and Mississippi [95% CI = 13.8% to 28.2%]), where cervical cancer rates were highest and recent Pap testing prevalence was the lowest.ConclusionsThe overall trends in declining cancer death rates continue. However, increases in incidence rates for some HPV-associated cancers and low vaccination coverage among adolescents underscore the need for additional prevention efforts for HPV-associated cancers, including efforts to increase vaccination coverage.

Concepts: Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Anal cancer, American Cancer Society

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Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended to prevent HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases, including cancers. Routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years has been recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) since 2006 for females and since 2011 for males (1,2). This report provides recommendations and guidance regarding use of HPV vaccines and updates ACIP HPV vaccination recommendations previously published in 2014 and 2015 (1,2). This report includes new recommendations for use of a 2-dose schedule for girls and boys who initiate the vaccination series at ages 9 through 14 years. Three doses remain recommended for persons who initiate the vaccination series at ages 15 through 26 years and for immunocompromised persons.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Infectious disease, Human papillomavirus, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Female, Anal cancer

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess ordering of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for normal cervical cytology among low-risk women aged 30 to 65 years.

Concepts: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Cervarix, Harald zur Hausen

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BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an opportunity to reduce health inequalities associated with cervical cancer provided the vaccine is delivered equitably at population level.Method We reviewed evidence of inequalities in HPV vaccine uptake in young women after undertaking a comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012. Studies that compared HPV vaccination initiation and/or completion by at least one ethnicity or socioeconomic-related variable in adolescent young women were included. There were no language restrictions. Data were extracted by two reviewers and pooled in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model; sub-analyses and meta-regression were undertaken to investigate sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: In all, 29 publications related to 27 studies were included in the review. Black young women were less likely to initiate HPV vaccination compared with White young women (combined OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.97). In the USA, young women without healthcare insurance were less likely to initiate (combined OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.78). There was no strong evidence that lower family income (combined OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00-1.34) or lower parental education (combined OR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.92-1.22) influenced HPV vaccination initiation. CONCLUSIONS: We found strong evidence for differences in HPV vaccination initiation by ethnicity and healthcare coverage, but did not find a strong association with parental education or family income variables. The majority of studies originated from the USA. Population-based studies reporting both initiation and completion of the HPV vaccination programme are required to establish patterns of uptake in different healthcare contexts.

Concepts: Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Anal cancer

169

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru’s Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5(th) grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance.

Concepts: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Anal cancer, Cervarix

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BACKGROUND: The female genital tract is an important bacterial habitat of the human body, and vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role in vaginal health. The alteration of vaginal microbiota affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the association between bacterial vaginosis and HPV infection. Little is known about the composition of vaginal microbial communities involved in HPV acquisition. The present study was performed to investigate whether HPV infection was associated with the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota. METHODS: A total of 70 healthy women (32 HPV-negative and 38 HPV-positive) with normal cervical cytology were enrolled in this study. Culture-independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to measure the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of all subjects. RESULTS: We found significantly greater biological diversity in the vaginal microbiota of HPV-positive women (p < 0.001). Lactobacillus, including L. gallinarum, L. iners and L. gasseri, was the predominant genus and was detected in all women. No significant difference between HPV-positive and HPV-negative women was found for the frequency of detection of L. gallinarum (p = 0.775) or L. iners (p = 0.717), but L. gasseri was found at a significantly higher frequency in HPV-positive women (p = 0.005). Gardnerella vaginalis was also found at a significantly higher frequency in HPV-positive women (p = 0.031). Dendrograms revealed that vaginal microbiota from the two groups had different profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first systematic evaluation of an association between vaginal microbiota and HPV infection, and we have demonstrated that compared with HPV-negative women, the bacterial diversity of HPV-positive women is more complex and the composition of vaginal microbiota is different.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, Bacterial vaginosis, Genital wart, Gardnerella vaginalis

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Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common in patients with genital warts. A gender inequality seems to exist.

Concepts: Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Papillomavirus, Anal cancer, Plantar wart, Genital wart, Wart, Vulvar cancer

147

Although papillomaviruses (PVs) have been widely reported in vertebrates, there have been only a few PV reports in yaks (Bos grunniens). In 2012, Bam et al. reported bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and BPV-2 associated with cutaneous papillomatosis in yaks, which provided genomic and pathology information for yak PVs. However, nucleotide identity and phylogenic analyses revealed that there are two isolates with a high possibility of belonging to a novel type that is not BPV-1. The argument was thought to be caused by type-specific primers. Our analysis showed that BPV-1 type-specific primers can detect not only BPV-1 but also other PVs. It suggests that identification results using type-specific primers should be confirmed with more robust methods in molecular epidemiological studies.

Concepts: Papillomavirus, Cattle, Bovine papillomavirus, Papillomaviridae, Bovines, Bos, Yak, Gaur

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Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall and type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among females living in riverside communities in the state of Pará, in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. These communities are inhabited by low-income people, and are accessible only by small boats. Cervical cytology and risk factors for HPV infection were also assessed. Methods Cervical samples from 353 women of selected communities were collected both for Papanicolau (Pap) test and HPV detection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were used to assess the overall and type-specific prevalence of HPV-16 and HPV-18, the main oncogenic types worldwide. Epidemiological questionnaires were used for the assessment of the risk factors for HPV infection. Results The mean age of the participants was 37 years (standard deviation [SD] ± 13.7). Most were married or with a fixed sexual partner (79%), and had a low educational level (80%) and family monthly income (< U$ 250; 53%). Overall, HPV prevalence was 16.4% (n = 58), with 8 cases of HPV-16 (2.3%) and 5 of HPV-18 (1.4%). Almost 70% of the women surveyed had never undergone the Pap test. Abnormal cytology results were found in 27.5% (n = 97) of the samples, with higher rates of HPV infection according to the severity of the lesions (p = 0.026). Conclusions The infections by HPV-16 and HPV-18 were not predominant in our study, despite the high prevalence of overall HPV infection. Nevertheless, the oncogenic potential of these types and the low coverage of the Pap test among women from riverside communities demonstrate a potential risk for the development of cervical lesions and their progression to cervical cancer, since the access to these communities is difficult and, in most cases, these women do not have access to primary care and public health services.

Concepts: Cancer, Polymerase chain reaction, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Cervarix

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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a known cause of cervical cancers, as well as some vulvar, vaginal, penile, oropharyngeal, anal, and rectal cancers (1,2). Although most HPV infections are asymptomatic and clear spontaneously, persistent infections with one of 13 oncogenic HPV types can progress to precancer or cancer. To assess the incidence of HPV-associated cancers, CDC analyzed 2008-2012 high-quality data from the CDC’s National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. During 2008-2012, an average of 38,793 HPV-associated cancers were diagnosed annually, including 23,000 (59%) among females and 15,793 (41%) among males. By multiplying these counts by the percentages attributable to HPV (3), CDC estimated that approximately 30,700 new cancers were attributable to HPV, including 19,200 among females and 11,600 among males. Cervical precancers can be detected through screening, and treatment can prevent progression to cancer; HPV vaccination can prevent infection with HPV types that cause cancer at cervical and other sites (3). Vaccines are available for HPV types 16 and 18, which cause 63% of all HPV-associated cancers in the United States, and for HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, which cause an additional 10% (3). Among the oncogenic HPV types, HPV 16 is the most likely to both persist and to progress to cancer (3). The impact of these primary and secondary prevention interventions can be monitored using surveillance data from population-based cancer registries.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Lung cancer, Anal cancer