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Concept: Pancreatic pseudocyst

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Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common gastrointestinal illness, which affects the quality of life with substantial morbidity and mortality. The management includes medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches with the need for interaction between various specialties, calling for a concerted multidisciplinary approach. However, at the time of this publication, guidelines to establish care of these patients are lacking. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the studies summarizing the various treatment options available, including medical, surgical and endoscopic options. In addition, technological advances such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrophy, endoscopic shock wave lithotripsy and endoscopic ultrasound can now be offered with reasonable success for pancreatic decompression, stricture dilatation with stent placement, stone fragmentation, pseudocyst drainage, and other endoscopic interventions such as celiac plexus block for pain relief. We emphasize the endoscopic options in this review, and attempt to extract the most up to date information from the current literature. The treatment of CP and its complications are discussed extensively. Complications such as biliary strictures. pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pain are common issues that arise as long-term complications of CP. These often require endoscopic or surgical management and possibly a combination of approaches, however choosing amongst the various therapeutic and palliative modalities while weighing the risks and benefits, makes the management of CP challenging. Treatment goals should be not just to control symptoms but also to prevent disease progression. Our aim in this paper is to advocate and emphasize an evidence based approach for the management of CP and associated long term complications.

Concepts: Medicine, Pain, Pancreatic cancer, Term, Suffering, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Robert C. Merton, Celiac plexus

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Pancreatic pseudocysts are frequent complications following acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as abdominal trauma. They originate from enzymatic and/or necrotizing processes within the organ involving the surrounding tissues through inflammatory processes following pancreatic ductal lesion(s). Pseudocysts require definitive treatment if they become symptomatic, progressive, larger than 5 cm after a period of more than 6 weeks and/or have complications. Cystic neoplasms must be excluded before treatment. Endoscopic interventions are commonly accepted first line approaches. Should these fail or not be feasible surgical procedures have been well established and show comparable results. In summary, pancreatic pseudocysts require a reliable diagnostic approach with a multidisciplinary professional management involving gastroenterologists and surgeons.

Concepts: Inflammation, Medicine, Hospital, Pancreas, Surgery, Gastroenterology, American College of Surgeons, Pancreatic pseudocyst

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BACKGROUND: Endosonography (EUS)-guided transmural pseudocyst drainage is a multistep procedure currently performed with different “off-the-shelf” accessories developed for other applications. Multiple device exchanges over-the-wire is time consuming and risks loss of wire access. This report describes the technical feasibility and outcomes for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel exchange-free device developed for translumenal therapy. METHODS: Between April and November 2010, 14 patients (9 men; mean age, 49.9 years) with pancreatic fluid collection (mean size, 102 mm) underwent 16 EUS-guided drainage procedures using the exchange-free access device at a single tertiary care center. The trocar of the exchange-free device was used to gain pseudocyst access. The dual-balloon catheter then was advanced over the trocar, followed by inflation of the (first) anchor balloon. Cyst contents were sampled, and contrast was injected to define the pseudocyst anatomy. The first guidewire was inserted into the cyst cavity. The cystenterostomy tract was dilated to 10 mm with the (second) dilation balloon, followed by a second guidewire insertion. The exchange-free access device was removed, leaving the two guidewires in place for two double-pigtail stents. RESULTS: The procedure was technically successful for all the patients. No acute procedure-related complications occurred. Late complications included a symptomatic leak in a patient who underwent drainage of a pancreatic uncinate pseudocyst from the second duodenum, a self-limited transfusion-dependent bleed after transbulbar drainage, and symptomatic pseudocyst infection. CONCLUSION: Pseudocyst access, cystenterostomy tract dilation, and placement of two guidewires for dual stent drainage are technically feasible using an exchange-free access device. The device has the potential to standardize, simplify, and streamline EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage with a single instrument. Comparative studies with alternative tools and methods for pseudocyst drainage are warranted.

Concepts: Stent, Tertiary referral hospital, Sebaceous cyst, Cyst, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst, Dilation

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BACKGROUND: The presence of debris within a pseudocyst may impair success of endoscopic drainage. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes and adverse-event rates of EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage with and without a nasocystic drain for the management of pancreatic pseudocysts with viscous solid debris-laden fluid. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Single, tertiary-care referral center. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with pancreatic pseudocysts managed by EUS-guided drainage: those with solid debris who underwent drainage via nasocystic drains alongside stents (n = 63) and those with solid debris who underwent drainage via transmural stents only (n = 24). INTERVENTION: Drainage via nasocystic drains alongside stents or drainage via transmural stents only. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcomes were short-term success and long-term success of the procedures. The secondary outcomes were procedure-related adverse events and reintervention. RESULTS: The patients with viscous solid debris-laden fluid whose pseudocysts were drained by both stents and nasocystic tubes had a 3 times greater short-term success rate compared with those who had drainage by stents alone (P = .03). On 12-month follow-up, complete resolution of pseudocysts with debris drained via stents alone was less (58%) compared with those with debris who underwent drainage via nasocystic drains alongside stents (79%; P = .059). The rate of stent occlusion was higher in cysts with debris drained by stents alone (33%) compared with those drained via nasocystic drains alongside stents (13%; P = .03). LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design; limited sample size. CONCLUSION: In patients with pseudocysts with viscous debris-laden fluid, EUS-guided drainage by using a combination of a nasocystic drain and transmural stents improves clinical outcomes and lowers the stent occlusion rate compared with those who underwent drainage via stents alone.

Concepts: Time, Liquid, Cyst, Drainage, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Watertable control, Pseudocyst, Well drainage

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The last decade has seen dramatic shift in paradigm in the management of pancreatic fluid collections with the rise of endoscopic therapy over radiologic or surgical management. Endosonographic drainage is now considered the gold standard therapy for pancreatic pseudocyst. Infected pancreatic necroses are being offered endoscopic necrosectomy that has been facilitated by the arrival on the market of large diameter lumen-apposing metal stent. Severe pancreatitis or failure to thrive should receive enteral nutrition while pancreatic ductal disruption or strictures are best treated by pancreatic stenting.

Concepts: Diseases and disorders, Stent, Gold, Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst

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Antral pseudocysts classically have a well-defined, hyperdense, unilocular, dome-shaped appearance in radiographs. The best therapeutic approach for treating these cysts in the context of sinus floor augmentation remains controversial. This article presents a new technique that allows both sinus membrane elevation and cyst removal through a crestal approach in patients with pseudocysts in the maxillary sinus.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Ovarian cyst, Sebaceous cyst, Cyst, Maxillary sinus, Gross pathology, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst

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An 11-year-old morbidly obese boy was diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocyst. Following fine needle aspiration, the cyst recurred in 1-month follow-up. Therefore, endoscopic drainage and cystoduodenostomy was performed following endosonography. Control ultrasonography (USG) revealed a completely shrunken cyst. During the 3 years of follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of cyst on computerized tomography scans. Endoscopic drainage and cystoduodenostomy is a minimally invasive, effective, and safe approach in the management of pancreatic pseudocysts in children.

Concepts: Medical terms, Surgery, Minimally invasive, Medical tests, Needle aspiration biopsy, Cyst, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst

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Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage is a minimally invasive first-line modality for the drainage of pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) resulting in a shorter hospital stay and less morbidity compared with surgical cystogastrostomy. Our aim is to evaluate potential differences in the outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided transmural drainage (EUS-TD) drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) and walled-off necrosis (WON).

Concepts: Surgery, United Kingdom, Minimally invasive, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Collection agency, Pseudocyst

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Pancreatic pseudocyst is a common complication of acute pancreatitis. Pseudocysts are commonly observed in the lesser sac and retroperitoneum; they are rarely seen in the liver. Herein, we report a case of intrahepatic pseudocyst, complicated by asymptomatic groove pancreatitis, that has successfully been treated with hepatic resection. A 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with severe upper abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed 11x10 cm sized cystic lesion in the left lateral section of the liver. Appearance of the pancreas was relatively normal. Endoscopic aspiration revealed a high level of amylase in the cystic fluid. After endoscopy, signs of peritonitis were observed; then, a left hemihepatectomy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed an intrahepatic pancreatic pseudocyst. The presence of intrahepatic cystic lesion in patients with suspected pancreatitis should raise the suspicion of intrahepatic pseudocyst. Intrahepatic pancreatic pseudocysts may be the only clinical manifestation even without an episode of acute pancreatitis.

Concepts: Insulin, Liver, Abdominal pain, Small intestine, Digestion, Pancreatitis, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst

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Endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage using lumen apposing metal stents (LAMSs) is becoming a popular and promising therapeutic approach for drainage of intra-abdominal fluid collections. There has been an increasing number of studies evaluating LAMS for drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts (PP), walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), and gallbladder (GB) drainage. The aim of this meta-analysis is to analyze the literature to date regarding the clinical success, technical success, and adverse events of LAMS in treatment of pancreatic fluid collections and GB drainage.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Pancreatic pseudocyst