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Concept: Pancreatic pseudocyst

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Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common gastrointestinal illness, which affects the quality of life with substantial morbidity and mortality. The management includes medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches with the need for interaction between various specialties, calling for a concerted multidisciplinary approach. However, at the time of this publication, guidelines to establish care of these patients are lacking. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the studies summarizing the various treatment options available, including medical, surgical and endoscopic options. In addition, technological advances such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrophy, endoscopic shock wave lithotripsy and endoscopic ultrasound can now be offered with reasonable success for pancreatic decompression, stricture dilatation with stent placement, stone fragmentation, pseudocyst drainage, and other endoscopic interventions such as celiac plexus block for pain relief. We emphasize the endoscopic options in this review, and attempt to extract the most up to date information from the current literature. The treatment of CP and its complications are discussed extensively. Complications such as biliary strictures. pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pain are common issues that arise as long-term complications of CP. These often require endoscopic or surgical management and possibly a combination of approaches, however choosing amongst the various therapeutic and palliative modalities while weighing the risks and benefits, makes the management of CP challenging. Treatment goals should be not just to control symptoms but also to prevent disease progression. Our aim in this paper is to advocate and emphasize an evidence based approach for the management of CP and associated long term complications.

Concepts: Medicine, Pain, Pancreatic cancer, Term, Suffering, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Robert C. Merton, Celiac plexus

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Pancreatic pseudocysts are frequent complications following acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as abdominal trauma. They originate from enzymatic and/or necrotizing processes within the organ involving the surrounding tissues through inflammatory processes following pancreatic ductal lesion(s). Pseudocysts require definitive treatment if they become symptomatic, progressive, larger than 5 cm after a period of more than 6 weeks and/or have complications. Cystic neoplasms must be excluded before treatment. Endoscopic interventions are commonly accepted first line approaches. Should these fail or not be feasible surgical procedures have been well established and show comparable results. In summary, pancreatic pseudocysts require a reliable diagnostic approach with a multidisciplinary professional management involving gastroenterologists and surgeons.

Concepts: Inflammation, Medicine, Hospital, Pancreas, Surgery, Gastroenterology, American College of Surgeons, Pancreatic pseudocyst

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BACKGROUND: Endosonography (EUS)-guided transmural pseudocyst drainage is a multistep procedure currently performed with different “off-the-shelf” accessories developed for other applications. Multiple device exchanges over-the-wire is time consuming and risks loss of wire access. This report describes the technical feasibility and outcomes for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel exchange-free device developed for translumenal therapy. METHODS: Between April and November 2010, 14 patients (9 men; mean age, 49.9 years) with pancreatic fluid collection (mean size, 102 mm) underwent 16 EUS-guided drainage procedures using the exchange-free access device at a single tertiary care center. The trocar of the exchange-free device was used to gain pseudocyst access. The dual-balloon catheter then was advanced over the trocar, followed by inflation of the (first) anchor balloon. Cyst contents were sampled, and contrast was injected to define the pseudocyst anatomy. The first guidewire was inserted into the cyst cavity. The cystenterostomy tract was dilated to 10 mm with the (second) dilation balloon, followed by a second guidewire insertion. The exchange-free access device was removed, leaving the two guidewires in place for two double-pigtail stents. RESULTS: The procedure was technically successful for all the patients. No acute procedure-related complications occurred. Late complications included a symptomatic leak in a patient who underwent drainage of a pancreatic uncinate pseudocyst from the second duodenum, a self-limited transfusion-dependent bleed after transbulbar drainage, and symptomatic pseudocyst infection. CONCLUSION: Pseudocyst access, cystenterostomy tract dilation, and placement of two guidewires for dual stent drainage are technically feasible using an exchange-free access device. The device has the potential to standardize, simplify, and streamline EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage with a single instrument. Comparative studies with alternative tools and methods for pseudocyst drainage are warranted.

Concepts: Stent, Tertiary referral hospital, Sebaceous cyst, Cyst, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst, Dilation

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BACKGROUND: The presence of debris within a pseudocyst may impair success of endoscopic drainage. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes and adverse-event rates of EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage with and without a nasocystic drain for the management of pancreatic pseudocysts with viscous solid debris-laden fluid. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Single, tertiary-care referral center. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with pancreatic pseudocysts managed by EUS-guided drainage: those with solid debris who underwent drainage via nasocystic drains alongside stents (n = 63) and those with solid debris who underwent drainage via transmural stents only (n = 24). INTERVENTION: Drainage via nasocystic drains alongside stents or drainage via transmural stents only. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcomes were short-term success and long-term success of the procedures. The secondary outcomes were procedure-related adverse events and reintervention. RESULTS: The patients with viscous solid debris-laden fluid whose pseudocysts were drained by both stents and nasocystic tubes had a 3 times greater short-term success rate compared with those who had drainage by stents alone (P = .03). On 12-month follow-up, complete resolution of pseudocysts with debris drained via stents alone was less (58%) compared with those with debris who underwent drainage via nasocystic drains alongside stents (79%; P = .059). The rate of stent occlusion was higher in cysts with debris drained by stents alone (33%) compared with those drained via nasocystic drains alongside stents (13%; P = .03). LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design; limited sample size. CONCLUSION: In patients with pseudocysts with viscous debris-laden fluid, EUS-guided drainage by using a combination of a nasocystic drain and transmural stents improves clinical outcomes and lowers the stent occlusion rate compared with those who underwent drainage via stents alone.

Concepts: Time, Liquid, Cyst, Drainage, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Watertable control, Pseudocyst, Well drainage

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Endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage using lumen apposing metal stents (LAMSs) is becoming a popular and promising therapeutic approach for drainage of intra-abdominal fluid collections. There has been an increasing number of studies evaluating LAMS for drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts (PP), walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), and gallbladder (GB) drainage. The aim of this meta-analysis is to analyze the literature to date regarding the clinical success, technical success, and adverse events of LAMS in treatment of pancreatic fluid collections and GB drainage.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Pancreatic pseudocyst

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The purpose of this study was to determine whether drainage and revision are an effective treatment for abdominal pseudocyst associated ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure by estimating the total rate of secondary shunt failure.

Concepts: Hydrocephalus, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst

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Pancreatic pseudocysts arise mostly in patients with alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis causing various symptoms and complications. However, data on the optimal management are rare. To address this problem, we analysed patients with pancreatic pseudocysts treated at our clinic retrospectively.

Concepts: Medical terms, Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis, Chronic pancreatitis, Pancreatic pseudocyst

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Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPC) are collections of fluid encapsulated within a well-defined inflammatory wall that develop during pancreatic inflammation. Internal drainage represents the standard of care in lesions that persist and lead to symptoms and complications. Only limited data are available on long-term results and recurrence of PPC after drainage procedures. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyse the long-term outcome after endoscopic drainage of PPC.

Concepts: Inflammation, Present, Time, Anti-inflammatory, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Plumbing, Pancreatic pseudocyst

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In the past decade, there has been a progressive paradigm shift in the management of peri-pancreatic fluid collections after acute pancreatitis. Refinements in the definitions of fluid collections from the updated Atlanta classification have enabled better communication amongst physicians in an effort to formulate optimal treatments. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has emerged as the procedure of choice over surgical cystogastrostomy. The approach provides similar success rates with low complications and better quality of life compared with surgery. However, an endoscopic “step up” approach in the management of pancreatic walled-off necrosis has also been advocated. Both endoscopic and percutaneous drainage routes may be used depending on the anatomical location of the collections. New-generation large diameter EUS-specific stent systems have also recently been described. The device allows precise and effective drainage of the collections and permits endoscopic necrosectomy through the stents.

Concepts: Medicine, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Surgery, Physician, Stent, Pancreatic cancer, Bronchoscopy, Pancreatic pseudocyst

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Pancreatic pseudocyst is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. The identification of risk factors and development of a nomogram for pancreatic pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis patients may contribute to the early diagnosis and intervention of pancreatic pseudocysts.

Concepts: Medical terms, Cyst, Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis, Chronic pancreatitis, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Pseudocyst