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Concept: Paecilomyces lilacinus


Fungi are some of the most important organisms in the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. This success is related to the advances in biotechnology and also to the possibility of working with techniques such as the “OSMAC” (one strain-many compounds) to achieve different fungal secondary metabolites profiles upon modifying the culturing conditions. Using this approach, the fungal species Paecilomyces lilacinus was cultivated in potato dextrose broth under 14 different fermentative conditions by adding the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium to the growing medium in order to provide biotic stress. S. typhimurium was added alive or after inactivation by autoclave or microwave irradiation in different stages of fungal growth. Extracts were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate, a medium polarity solvent in order to avoid extracting culturing media components. Production of fatty acids of relevance for the pharmaceutical and food industries was enhanced by the modified fermentative conditions and they were identified and quantified. The extracts were evaluated for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the more active extract (91±2.91% inhibition) was prepared in large scale. From this active P. lilacinus extract, a novel pyridone alkaloid, named Paecilomide, was isolated and its structure was elucidated by modern nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and mass spectrometric analyses. Paecilomide (1) was also evaluated for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, presenting 57.5±5.50% of acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

Concepts: Bacteria, Enzyme, Biology, Fungus, Ethanol, Paecilomyces, Alkaloid, Paecilomyces lilacinus


The fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus is a rare but emerging pathogen that causes severe human infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. It is an important organism to identify due to its poor susceptibility to conventional antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Oculomycosis and cutaneous infections are the two most common manifestations of P. lilacinus infections. Voriconazole has been used successfully to treat P. lilacinus endophthalmitis, but reports of skin and soft tissue infections treated with voriconazole are limited to six prior publications. Our immunocompromised patient had a subcutaneous P. lilacinus infection successfully treated with 3 months of voriconazole therapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Antifungals, Ergosterol, Paecilomyces lilacinus


Ancylostoma species have demanded attention due to their zoonotic potential. The use of anthelmintics is the usual method to prevent environmental contamination by Ancylostoma eggs and larvae. Nematophagous fungi have been widely used in their biological control due to the fungus ability to capture and digest free nematode forms.

Concepts: Evolution, Biology, Eukaryote, Fungus, Taxonomic rank, Kingdom, Paecilomyces, Paecilomyces lilacinus


The fast anthelmintic resistance development has shown a limited efficiency in the control of animal’s endoparasitosis and has promoted research using alternative control methods. The use of chemicals in animal anthelmintic treatment, in association with nematophagous fungi used for biological control, is a strategy that has proven to be effective in reducing the nematode population density in farm animals. This study aims to verify the in vitro susceptibility of the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans and Paecilomyces lilacinus against the antiparasitic drugs albendazole, thiabendazole, ivermectin, levamisole and closantel by using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). MICs ranged between 4.0 and 0.031 µg/mL for albendazole, thiabendazole and ivermectin, between 0.937 and 0.117 µg/mL for levamisole, and between 0.625 and 0.034 µg/mL for closantel. The results showed that all antiparasitic drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on nematophagous fungi, which could compromise their action as agents of biological control. D. flagrans was the most susceptible species to all drugs.

Concepts: Population, Population ecology, Fungus, Animal, Paecilomyces, Anthelmintic, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Nematophagous fungus


Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

Concepts: Evolution, Fungus, Soil, Taxonomic rank, Paecilomyces, Desert, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces lilacinus


The use of biological agents has been intensified in recent years against eggs and larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes as an alternative control method in pasture plant health management, with the concomitant use with antiparasitic drugs still occurring. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro activity of the following antiparasitic drugs: Ivermectin and albendazole against the following nematophagous fungi: Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Paecilomyces variotii. The agar diffusion test was performed using an initial concentration of 0.0016g/mL of each drug, after solidification of the culture medium containing the drug concentration each nematophagous fungi was inoculated. The results showed that in a concentration of 80μg/mL, the fungal growth decreased, however, with the concentration of 160μg/mL, there was no fungal growth in both drugs, compared to the control, which indicates an inhibition in the development of the nematophagous fungi studied when they come in contact with ivermectin and albendazole.

Concepts: Biology, Plant, Fungus, Yeast, Cell wall, Paecilomyces, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Nematophagous fungus


Baylisascaris procyonis is a soil-transmitted helminth mainly found in raccoons (Procyon lotor) which can also affect other domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as humans, when the eggs released in the feces of parasitized raccoons are accidentally ingested. Three assays have been conducted to assess the effect of three saprophytic fungi, Mucor circinelloides, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Verticillium sp., on the eggs of B. procyonis. Firstly, their ovicidal effect was in vitro ascertained by placing 1 mL with 2 × 10(6) spores of each fungus in Petri plates with water-agar (2 %) and simultaneously adding 200 eggs of Baylisascaris/plate. Two in vivo probes were carried out, by spraying the fungal spores (3 mL containing about 2 × 10(6) spores/mL) on the feces of raccoons and coatis (Nasua narica) passing eggs of B. procyonis in a zoological park; the other assay consisted of evaluating the activity of the fungi after adding sand to fecal samples from raccoons. An ovicidal type 3 activity characterized by morphological damage of the eggshell with hyphal penetration, internal egg colonization, and embryo alteration was observed for all the tested fungi. In the plate assays, viability of Baylisascaris eggs reduced significantly by 53-69 % with Mucor, 45-62 % with Paecilomyces, and 52-67 % with Verticillium. A similar ovicidal effect was detected in the feces with sand. These results demonstrate the usefulness of spraying spores of M. circinelloides, Pa. lilacinus, or Verticillium sp. on the feces of animals infected by Baylisascaris to decrease the numbers of viable eggs and, thus, the risk of infection.

Concepts: Fungus, In vitro, Spore, Paecilomyces, Raccoon, Zygomycota, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Coati


The feasibility of converting food waste into nematocidal biofertilizer by nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (P. lilacinus) was investigated. The culture conditions of P. lilacinus were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that fermentation time, the amount of food waste, initial pH and temperature were most important factors for P. lilacinus production. The P. lilacinus production under optimize conditions was 10(9.6±0.3) conidia mL(-1). After fermentation, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of food waste was efficiently decreased by 81.92%. Moreover, the property evaluation of the resultant food waste as biofertilizer indicates its high quality with reference to the standard released by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. The protease activity and nematocidal ability of P. lilacinus cultured by food waste were 10.8% and 27% higher than those by PDA, respectively.

Concepts: Bacteria, Enzyme, Fungus, The Culture, Paecilomyces, Root-knot nematode, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Nematophagous fungus


The purpose of this study was to report: (1) the varying presentation of Paecilomyces ocular infections arising in Queensland; (2) the significance of immunosuppression as a primary determinant of disease; (3) the outcomes of voriconazole use; and (4) the ongoing need for both surgical and medical management of this devastating fungal infection.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Disease, Infectious disease, Infection, Fungus, Paecilomyces, Paecilomyces lilacinus


Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes severe stem rot and yield loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crops worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on Paecilomyces lilacinus as a nematophagous bioagent. However, no reports stated the effect of P. lilacinus as a biocontrol agent against oilseed rape rot S. sclerotiorum. This study describes such effect in lab and field trials using the new transformant pt361 derived from the wild strain P. lilacinus 36-1. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant pt361 showed high antagonistic effect against S. Sclerotiorum A. Under lab conditions, the pt361 inhibited (65%) radial mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in dual culture test producing 5.9 mm inhibition zone IZ in front of the S. sclerotiorum colony. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of pt361 culture showed strong inhibitory effects (60.3-100%) on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. In leaf detached assay, pt361 significantly (p<0.05) inhibited (40.4-97.9%) the extension of the leaf spots caused by S. sclerotiorum A at all tested concentrations. The genomic DNA sequences of the inserted T-DNA flanking obtained from pt361 strain was cloned, verified as a glycoside hydrolase 31 family by homologous analysis with other fungal strains, and named PGH31 (2556bp). Secondary structure prediction showed a domain (Glycoside hydrolase31). Three years field trial confirmed that the cell-free filtrates or spores suspension of pt361 achieved significant (p<0.05) suppression of oilseed rape stem rot, promoted growth and increased yield compared to the control and exceeded, at dose 100%, the action of the fungicide procymidone(®). In conclusion, the mutant pt361 of P. lilacinus is a novel and promising biocontrol agent against oilseed rape Sclerotinia stem rot.

Concepts: Fungus, Lipid, Rapeseed, Brassica, Paecilomyces, Paecilomyces lilacinus