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Concept: Otolaryngology


Introduction and objectives: Behçet disease (BD) is a systemic immune-mediated vasculitis of unknown origin characterised by recurrent orogenital ulceration, ocular inflammation and skin lesions. The aim of our study was to identify ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations associated with BD.

Concepts: Inflammation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Tinnitus, Otolaryngology


Dizziness is a common symptom in daily clinical practice. Dizziness and vertigo affect the quality of life as they are associated with the risk of falls leading to limited ability of independent locomotion and thus to a reduction in social contact. The source of problems with dizziness is localized in the area of visual, somatosensory and vestibular sense inputs. The ear nose and throat (ENT) specialist is involved in an interdisciplinary context to elucidate and treat peripheral vestibular disorders. The subjective symptoms of dizziness have to be clarified by taking a careful patient history. By means of objective tests (cVEMP, oVEMP, video-head impulse test) the ENT specialist is able to selectively analyze the function of the five vestibular receptors; therefore, a topological assignment in peripheral vestibulopathy is possible. The exact diagnosis is a prerequisite for a specific therapy and many diseases can be evidence-based, safe and effectively treated.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Greek loanwords, Sensory system, Otology, Ménière's disease, Otolaryngology, Otoplasty


Carcinomas arising in the thyroglossal duct cysts are rare, accounting only for about 0.7-1.5 % of all thyroglossal duct cysts.1 (-) 3 Synchronous occurrence of thyroglossal duct carcinoma and thyroid carcinoma is reported to be even rarer.4 Traditionally, surgical treatments of such coexisting thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma (TGDCa) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were typically performed through a single transverse or double incisions on the overlying skin. A longer, extended cervical incision might be required if neck dissection is necessary. Though this method provides the operator with the optimal surgical view, the detrimental cosmetic effect on the patient of possessing a scar cannot be avoided, despite the effort of the surgeon to camouflage the scar by placing the incision in natural skin creases. Recently, the authors have previously reported the feasibility of robot-assisted neck dissections via a transaxillary and retroauricular (“TARA”) approach or modified face-lift approach in early head and neck cancers.5 (,) 6 On the basis of the forementioned surgical technique, we demonstrate our novel technique for robot-assisted Sistrunk’s operation via retroauricular approach as well as robot-assisted neck dissection with total thyroidectomy via transaxillary approach.

Concepts: Head and neck, Surgery, Epithelium, Thyroid disease, Al-Andalus, Surgical oncology, Otolaryngology, Thyroglossal cyst


Balloon dilation technology (BDT), also known as balloon sinuplasty, has been in clinical use since September, 2005. Prior to BDT, surgeons performed a procedure called FESS, or functional endoscopic sinus surgery, for patients with chronic sinusitis. As is true with any new technology or procedure in medicine, a debate often ensues between early adopters and mainstream practitioners. Over the past 7 years, much has been discussed, debated, and learned about BDT. What follows is a review of the origins of the BDT: the theory, technology, indications and applications; and a review of the pertinent outcomes literature. Independent of how one feels about BDT, the evidence strongly supports its safety, efficacy, and growing popularity among patients and physicians alike.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Sinusitis, Physician, Otolaryngology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Rhinology


Septoplasty is a frequently performed operation by otolaryngologists to relieve nasal obstruction complaints. When objective measurements tools are not available, preoperative decision-making is based on careful clinical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between type and severity of septal deviation and patient-reported nasal obstruction.

Concepts: Degree of a polynomial, Objective pronoun, Otolaryngology


The effectiveness of tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy (“tonsillectomy”) for recurrent throat infection compared with watchful waiting is uncertain.

Concepts: Infectious diseases, Otolaryngology


Histories of twentieth-century surgery have focused on surgical ‘firsts’ - dramatic tales of revolutionary procedures. The history of tonsillectomy is less glamorous, but more widespread, representing the experience and understanding of medicine for hundreds of children, parents and surgeons daily. At the start of the twentieth century, tonsillectomy was routine - performed on at least 80 000 schoolchildren each year in Britain. However, by the 1980s, public and professional discourse condemned the operation as a ‘dangerous fad’. This profound shift in the medical, political and social position of tonsillectomy rested upon several factors: changes in the organisation of medical institutions and national health care; changes in medical technologies and the criteria by which they are judged; the political, cultural and economic context of Britain; and the social role of the patient. Tonsillectomy was not a mere passive subject of external influences, but became a potent concept in medical, political, and social discourse. Therefore, it reciprocally influenced these discourses and subsequently the development of twentieth-century British medicine. These complex interactions between ‘medical’ and ‘non-medical’ spheres question the possibility of demarcating what is internal from what is external to medicine.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Surgery, Sociology, Physician, 20th century, Discourse, Otolaryngology


Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is effective in treating tumors harboring alterations in the mTOR pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to everolimus remain undefined. Resistance developed in a patient with metastatic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma after an extraordinary 18-month response. Whole-exome sequencing of pretreatment and drug-resistant tumors revealed a nonsense mutation in TSC2, a negative regulator of mTOR, suggesting a mechanism for exquisite sensitivity to everolimus. The resistant tumor also harbored a mutation in MTOR that confers resistance to allosteric mTOR inhibition. The mutation remains sensitive to mTOR kinase inhibitors.

Concepts: Cancer, Mutation, Oncology, Types of cancer, Thyroid disease, Inhibitor, Mammalian target of rapamycin, Otolaryngology


Fat grafting can be used to improve the results of face lifting. The extent to which plastic surgeons use fat grafting in their face-lift practices is unknown. The goals of this study were to understand the current use of fat grafting during facial rejuvenation surgery and identify the most common techniques used.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Plastic surgery, Reconstructive surgery, General surgery, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Otolaryngology, Rhytidectomy


Lower lid blepharoplasty is one of the most complex procedures performed by plastic surgeons and may cause significant long-term sequelae, including inadequate aesthetic outcomes if not performed with a thorough understanding of anatomy and proper technique. The authors' practice is consistently evolving to deliver the highest quality results for their patients. The purpose of this article is to introduce an additional sixth step to the lower lid blepharoplasty procedure involving the targeted injection of fractionated fat to better blend the lid-cheek junction. This added step will enhance overall facial rejuvenation, is reproducible, and will provide patients with exceptional outcomes.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Plastic surgery, Rejuvenation, Blepharoplasty, Otolaryngology, Blend