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Concept: Osaka Prefecture

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OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between occupational contamination and exposure levels to antineoplastic drugs and the application of control measures in a hospital work environment. Methods : Wipe samples of equipments were collected at a hospital in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, from 2007 to 2011. These samples were subjected to measurements of cyclophosphamide (CP), gemcitabine (GEM), platinum-containing drugs (Pt), and fluorouracil (5FU). Additionally, 24-h urine samples were collected from pharmacists who handled antineoplastic drugs, which were analyzed for CP and alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (AFBA). The application of control measures was scored according to a checklist, which consisted of the following five items: safety equipment and maintenance, training and documentation, devices for safe handling, personal protective equipment, and emergency care. The aim was to obtain a score of 80%. Results : The median CP, GEM, and 5FU concentrations of all wipe samples were significantly lower during the period when the mean score was >80% (attainment period) versus when the mean score was ≤80% (nonattainment period; all P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney's U-test). Additionally, the median urinary CP and AFBA concentrations of pharmacists during the attainment period tended to be lower than that of those during the nonattainment period (P = 0.061 and 0.061, respectively, using Mann-Whitney's U-test). Conclusions : Contamination and levels of exposure to antineoplastic drugs decreased with a score higher than 80%. The scores of the items on the checklist appeared to adequately reflect the condition of the control measures, as increases in all five items were associated with reductions in the contamination by and levels of exposure to all drugs.

Concepts: Arithmetic mean, Scores, Personal protective equipment, Protection, Pharmacy, Occupational safety and health, Prefectures of Japan, Osaka Prefecture

3

Few studies have evaluated the actual situations of emergency patients with self-inflicted injuries treated by emergency-medical-service (EMS) personnel.

Concepts: Tokyo, Osaka Prefecture, Kyoto, Osaka, Kansai International Airport

1

To investigate the association between the economic recession and the detection of advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Osaka city from 2007 to 2009.

Concepts: Lung, Tuberculosis, Financial crisis, Unemployment, Recession, Crisis theory, Tokyo, Osaka Prefecture

0

In September 1995 it was reported that the redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell) had invaded Japan. To date 84 redback spider bite cases have been reported, and of these, seven employed the antivenom. In the past, antivenom have been imported from Australia, but because of restrictions on exportation thereof it was evident that nearly all of the antivenom present in Japan would expire during 2014. In 2014 a plan was proposed to experimentally manufacture and stockpile a horse antiserum for ourselves, employing redback spiders indigenous to Japan. A total of 11,403 female spiders were captured alive: 1,217 from the vicinity of Nishinomiya City, Hyogo prefecture, and 10,186 from Osaka prefecture. Of these, 10,007 females were dissected and the venom was extracted from the venom glands removed from each individual and subjected to crude purification to give 4 lots, of which the majority was α-latrotoxin. Among them, a large amount of single lot with an estimated protein content of 236 mg is subsequently scheduled to be used for immunizing horses. We also determined lethal toxicity of the venom (LD50: 9.17 μg per mouse), and established the assay for the determination of anti-lethal titer of antivenom in mouse.

Concepts: Antivenom, Prefectures of Japan, Spider bite, Latrodectus, Honshū, Hyōgo Prefecture, Osaka Prefecture, Redback spider

0

The first upsurge of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), a causative agent of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), in Japan was reported in Osaka City in 2010. In this study, which began in 2010, we surveyed EV-D68 in children with ARIs and analyzed sequences of EV-D68 strains detected. Real-time PCR of 19 respiratory viruses or subtypes of viruses, including enterovirus, was performed on 2,215 specimens from ARI patients (<10 years of age) collected between November 2010 and December 2015 in Osaka City, Japan. EV-D68 was identified in 18 enterovirus-positive specimens (n = 4 in 2013, n = 1 in 2014, and n = 13 in 2015) by analysis of viral protein 1 (VP1) or VP4 sequences, followed by a BLAST search for similar sequences. All EV-D68 strains were detected between June and October (summer to autumn), except for one strain detected in 2014. A phylogenetic analysis of available VP1 sequences revealed that the Osaka strains detected in 2010, 2013, and 2015 belonged to distinct clusters (Clades C, A, and B [Subclade B3], respectively). Comparison of the 5' untranslated regions of these viruses showed that Osaka strains in Clades A, B (Subclade B3), and C commonly had deletions at nucleotide positions 681-703 corresponding to the prototype Fermon strain. Clades B and C had deletions from nucleotide positions 713-724. Since the EV-D68 epidemic in 2010, EV-D68 re-emerged in Osaka City, Japan, in 2013 and 2015. Results of this study indicate that distinct clades of EV-D68 contributed to re-emergences of this virus in 2010, 2013, and 2015 in this limited region.

Concepts: DNA, Genetics, Virus, RNA, Years in the future, 2010s, Tokyo, Osaka Prefecture

0

Although it is important to assess the factors associated with traffic accident fatalities to decrease them as a matter of public health, such factors have not been fully identified.

Concepts: São Paulo, Tokyo, Osaka Prefecture, Kyoto, Osaka, Kansai International Airport

0

The aim of this paper was to explore the effect of seasonal temperature differences and cold indoor environment in winter on the physical performance of older people living in the community based on a field study. We recruited 162 home-dwelling older people from a rehabilitation facility in the Osaka prefecture, Japan; physical performance data were available from 98/162 (60.5%). At the same time, for some participants, a questionnaire survey and a measurement of the indoor temperature of individual houses were conducted. The analysis showed that there were seasonal trends in the physical performance of older people and that physical performance was worse in the winter compared with the autumn. Furthermore, people living in colder houses had worse physical performance. The findings indicate that keeping the house warm in the winter can help to maintain physical performance.

Concepts: Japan, Season, Autumn, House, Winter, Prefectures of Japan, Honshū, Osaka Prefecture

0

We aimed to investigate prehospital factors associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance among elderly emergency patients.

Concepts: Hospital, Tokyo, Osaka Prefecture, Kyoto, Osaka, Kansai International Airport

0

The patient characteristics, pre-hospital interventions, and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring during exercise, have not been sufficiently investigated among the general population.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Tokyo, Osaka Prefecture, Kyoto, Osaka, Kansai International Airport

0

The distributions of 15 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in sediments collected at 44 sites throughout Osaka Bay, Japan were examined. The highest total NPAHs, with a concentration of 1949ng/kg dry weight, were detected near the city of Amagasaki. Some sites near the cities of Osaka, Kishiwada, sand Sakai registered ng/kg levels of NPAHs, but individual NPAH concentrations were relatively lower than those in previous studies. The sources were estimated using principal component analysis, and NPAHs were derived from exhaust gases of automobiles and industries at some sites. However, our results suggest that it is difficult to estimate the source, especially in coastal areas near big cities and large industrial areas, because the generation pathways between parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs are slightly different, and the ratio of PAHs and NPAHs could not be accurately reflect the characters of sources in sediments especially at coastal areas with large-scale industrial zones.

Concepts: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Benzene, Ratio, Principal component analysis, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, Naphthalene, Osaka Prefecture