Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli.
Traditional factors that once explained men’s sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), psychological (sexual conditioning), sociological; and (2) presents a series of clinical reports, all with the aim of proposing a possible direction for future research of this phenomenon. Alterations to the brain’s motivational system are explored as a possible etiology underlying pornography-related sexual dysfunctions. This review also considers evidence that Internet pornography’s unique properties (limitless novelty, potential for easy escalation to more extreme material, video format, etc.) may be potent enough to condition sexual arousal to aspects of Internet pornography use that do not readily transition to real-life partners, such that sex with desired partners may not register as meeting expectations and arousal declines. Clinical reports suggest that terminating Internet pornography use is sometimes sufficient to reverse negative effects, underscoring the need for extensive investigation using methodologies that have subjects remove the variable of Internet pornography use. In the interim, a simple diagnostic protocol for assessing patients with porn-induced sexual dysfunction is put forth.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of DA-8031, a novel compound for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), we performed in vivo pharmacological studies using 2 preclinical animal models, electrical stimulation of sensory branch of pudendal nerve (SBPdn) and para-chloroamphetamine (PCA)-induced ejaculation model. METHODS: First of all, in electrical stimulation of an SBPdn model, an SBPdn in the pelvic canal of the spinal cord transected from rats was identified. Then an electromyogram (EMG) of the bulbospongiosus (BS) muscle was recorded during electrical stimulation of SBPdn after single intravenous (IV) dosing of DA-8031 and its reference drug, dapoxetine. In the second model, both seminal vesicle pressure (SVP) and the EMG profile of the BS muscle were recorded in PCA-induced ejaculation animals after treated with the same dosing regimen. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) of the BS muscle by EMG wave exhibited a significant reduction in the DA-8031 and dapoxetine 3 mg/kg treated groups, and maximum amplitudes were also significantly decreased in DA-8031 1, 3 mg/kg and dapoxetine 3 mg/kg dose level in the SBPdN stimulation model. Consistent with these findings, in a PCA-induced ejaculation model, SVP increase was significantly inhibited from DA-8031 0.3 mg/kg dose level, and AUC of BS muscle EMG significantly decreased in the DA-8031 1, 3 mg/kg groups. CONCLUSION: The present study implied that DA-8031 contributed to an effective co-coordinated inhibition of the expulsion phase of ejaculation by modulating BS muscle activity and the emission phase through blocking SVP rise. From these findings, DA-8031 is further expected to have clinical efficacy in human studies.
Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent yet under-reported sexual disorders. Differing sociocultural norms across the Asia-Pacific region provide unique challenges in PE management.
In non-azoospermic patients with low semen volume (LSV), looking for partial retrograde ejaculation (PRE) by searching sperm in the postejaculatory urine (PEU) is required. The use of a retro-ejaculatory index (R-ratio) was suggested to define PRE, but none of the studies indicated a specific threshold above which PRE must be considered. Our objective was to propose a threshold value for the R-ratio as indicative of PRE in patients with LSV selected to be devoid of any known causes or risk factors for retrograde ejaculation or LSV. Among our data base (2000-2009) including 632 patients with PEU, 245 male patients from infertile couples who had had a first semen analysis with LSV (< 2mL) and a second semen analysis associated with PEU, were selected on the previous criteria. A prospective control group was randomly constituted (2007-2008) of 162 first consulting male patients from infertile couples, with a normal semen volume (≥ 2mL) on a first semen analysis and who accepted to collect PEU with their usual second semen analysis, selected on the previous criteria. To define an R-ratio threshold indicative of PRE, we used a ROC curve analysis and a regression tree based on a classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm. Of the 245 LSV patients, 146 still presented low semen volume (< 2 mL) on the second semen analysis. From the use of the CART algorithm, two low (1.5% and 2.8%) and two high R-values (7.1% and 8.3%) were defined, according to the lower reference limit for semen volume of 2.0 mL (WHO 1999) or 1.5 mL (WHO 2010) respectively. As only one or no patient with normal semen volume was observed above the two high R-values, we suggest an R-value higher than the range of [7.1-8.3]% as indicative of PRE until confirmation by a prospective multicenter study.
A 19 year old presented with a progressive decline in ejaculate volume over 2 weeks, followed by a complete absence of ejaculate emission. A post-ejaculatory urine specimen demonstrated spermatozoa confirming a diagnosis of retrograde ejaculation. Investigations revealed a raised blood glucose level of 24.5 mmol/L and HbA1c >15%, with positive tests for anti-GAD antibodies and anti-IA2 antibodies consistent with a diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Retrograde ejaculation in diabetes is associated with autonomic neuropathy and is a late feature of the disease. This case is unique with retrograde ejaculation being the primary presenting symptom of Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
To assess the correlation between penile hypersensitivity and premature ejaculation (PE), a total of 420 consecutive subjects attending our andrologic clinic for suspected PE were enrolled. The entire cohort was asked to complete the self-report intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) by stopwatch. According to the IELT, the subjects were classified into 3 groups. Vibratory thresholds were recorded at the glans penis and penile shaft using a biothesiometer. We found that vibratory thresholds in the glans penis and penile shaft were significantly lower in both mild and severe PE group than in the control group (3.81 ± 0.57 and 3.54 ± 0.43 vs 4.73 ± 0.77 for glans penis p = 0.000; 3.64 ± 0.52 and 3.37 ± 0.50 vs 4.62 ± 0.69 for penile shaft p = 0.002). The vibratory threshold decreased as the disease aggravated. In the mild and severe PE groups, a significant positive correlation was detected between the mean values of IELT and the vibratory thresholds. Furthermore, in the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the area under the curve of the glans penis and penile shaft vibratory thresholds predicting severe PE were 0.852 and 0.893 respectively. Our study established a dose-dependent association between penile vibratory threshold and PE. Therefore, the vibratory threshold can serve as a potential marker for predicting the severity of PE.
The Sexual Excitation Sexual/Inhibition Inventory for Women and Men (SESII-W/M) and the Sexual Excitation Scales/Sexual Inhibition Scales short form (SIS/SES-SF) are two self-report questionnaires for assessing sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI). According to the dual control model of sexual response, SE and SI differ between individuals and influence the occurrence of sexual arousal in given situations. Extreme levels of SE and SI are postulated to be associated with sexual difficulties or risky sexual behaviors. The present study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of the German versions of both questionnaires utilizing a large population-based sample of 2,708 participants (Mage = 51.19, SD = 14.03). Overall, psychometric evaluation of the two instruments yielded good convergent and discriminant validity and mediocre to good internal consistency. The original 30-item version of the SESII-W/M did not show a sufficient model fit. For a 24-item version of the SESII-W/M partial strong measurement invariance across gender, and strong measurement invariance across relationship status, age, and educational levels were established. The original structure (14 items, 3 factors) of the SIS/SES-SF was not replicated. However, a 4-factor model including 13 items showed a good model fit and strong measurement invariance across the before-mentioned participant groups. For both questionnaires, partial strong measurement invariance with the original American versions of the scales was found. As some factors showed unsatisfactory internal consistency and the factor structure of the original scales could not be replicated, scores on several SE- and SI-factors should be interpreted with caution. However, most analyses indicated sufficient psychometric quality of the German SESII-W/M and SIS/SES-SF and their use can be recommended in German-speaking samples. More research with diverse samples (i.e., different sexual orientations, individuals with sexual difficulties) is needed to ensure the replicability of the factor solutions presented in this study.
Research on multidimensional sexual perfectionism differentiates four forms: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to themselves as sexual partners; partner-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to their sexual partner; partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people’s beliefs that their sexual partner imposes perfectionistic standards on them; and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people’s beliefs that society imposes such standards on them. Previous studies found partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism to be maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with a negative sexual self-concept and problematic sexual behaviors, but only examined cross-sectional relationships. The present article presents the first longitudinal study examining whether multidimensional sexual perfectionism predicts changes in sexual self-concept and sexual function over time. A total of 366 women aged 17-69 years completed measures of multidimensional sexual perfectionism, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and sexual function (cross-sectional data). Three to six months later, 164 of the women completed the same measures again (longitudinal data). Across analyses, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism emerged as the most maladaptive form of sexual perfectionism. In the cross-sectional data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism showed positive relationships with sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and intercourse pain, and negative relationships with sexual esteem, desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasmic function. In the longitudinal data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism predicted increases in sexual anxiety and decreases in sexual esteem, arousal, and lubrication over time. The findings suggest that partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism contributes to women’s negative sexual self-concept and female sexual dysfunction.
During sexual stimulation, some women report the discharge of a noticeable amount of fluid from the urethra, a phenomenon also called “squirting.” To date, both the nature and the origin of squirting remain controversial. In this investigation, we not only analyzed the biochemical nature of the emitted fluid, but also explored the presence of any pelvic liquid collection that could result from sexual arousal and explain a massive fluid emission.