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Concept: Organs


Earlier detection is key to reducing cancer deaths. Here we describe a blood test that can detect eight common cancer types through assessment of the levels of circulating proteins and mutations in cell-free DNA. We applied this test, called CancerSEEK, to 1,005 patients with non-metastatic, clinically detected cancers of the ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, esophagus, colorectum, lung, or breast. CancerSEEK tests were positive in a median of 70% of the eight cancer types. The sensitivities ranged from 69% to 98% for the detection of five cancer types (ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, and esophagus) for which there are no screening tests available for average-risk individuals. The specificity of CancerSEEK was > 99%: only 7 of 812 healthy controls scored positive. In addition, CancerSEEK localized the cancer to a small number of anatomic sites in a median of 83% of the patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, Organ, Digestion, Organs, Medical test


Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and the internal organs. In a previous work we suggested a correlation between levels of salivary psoriasin (S100A7) and pulmonary involvement in SSc patients. The goals of this study are to determine the distribution characteristics of psoriasin in whole saliva (WS) of SSc and healthy donor populations and define its predictive value on diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO), along with others clinical parameters.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Heart, Skin, Carbon monoxide, Autoimmune diseases, Organs, Scleroderma, Systemic scleroderma


The anti-angiogenic Sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, acquired resistance limits its efficacy. An emerging theory to explain intrinsic resistance to other anti-angiogenic drugs is ‘vessel co-option,’ ie, the ability of tumors to hijack the existing vasculature in organs such as the lungs or liver, thus limiting the need for sprouting angiogenesis. Vessel co-option has not been evaluated as a potential mechanism for acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic agents.

Concepts: Cancer, Heart, Blood vessel, Organ, Organs, Systemic therapy, Vessels, Vessel


All-trans retinol, a precursor of retinoic acid, is an effective anti-aging treatment widely used in skin care products. In comparison, topical retinoic acid is believed to provide even greater anti-aging effects; however, there is limited research directly comparing the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on skin.

Concepts: Medicine, Comparison, Effectiveness, Skin, Human skin color, Organs, Retinoic acid, Tretinoin


Wild mullet (Mugil cephalus) with white cysts on their scales were obtained from Yeosu on the south coast of Korea in 2009. Cyst-like plasmodia consisted of a large number of mature myxosporean spores and numerous sporogonic stages. Spores were oval-shaped in their front view, tapering anteriorly to a blunt apex, and lenticular in their lateral view. They measured 7.0 μm (6.2-7.6) in length, 5.2 μm (4.0-6.2) in width, and 4.9 μm (3.8-6.0) in thickness. Polar capsules contained a polar filament with five to six turns and measured 3.5 μm (2.5-4.5) in length and 2.0 μm (1.6-2.3) in width. Nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the myxosporean parasites in our study showed 99.8 % identity with Myxobolus episquamalis Egusa, Maeno and Sorimachi, 1990 from mullet in Tunisia. These results suggest that the Myxobolus sp. found on the scales of wild mullet is M. episquamalis. In the histopathological examination, spores were observed not only in the plasmodia on the scales, but also in the intestine, pancreas, heart, kidney, stomach, gill, skin, spleen, and liver, suggesting the possibility of the coinfection by different Myxobolus species.

Concepts: DNA, Ribosomal RNA, Small intestine, Units of measurement, Height, Organs, Mugilidae, 18S ribosomal RNA


Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Parasitism, Carp, Cyprinidae, Organs, Hypophthalmichthys, Silver carp


The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than Zn, the observed highly preferential Cd load in kidney seems reasonable. The relatively low Cd found in liver can be attributed to its excretion through bile and its inability to displace Cu from MTs. The associations of selenium observed with Cd and/or Cu (on the tissue and cell level) point to selenium involvement in the detoxification of excessive cadmium and copper through immobilization.

Concepts: Glucose, Liver, Organ, Zinc, Organs, Amphibian, Bufo, Common Toad


Although the number of patients needing organ transplantation systematically increases, recent years have seen a considerable shortage of donors. The level of knowledge and attitudes toward donation are critical factors in achieving the required balance between supply and demand. This pilot study assessed the knowledge, opinions, and behaviors related to organ donation and transplantation among 625 students representing eight different fields of study from the University of Rzeszow in south-eastern Poland. Although the participants provided evidence of knowledge about human organ donation and transplantation, they were aware of the main organs of the human body for potential transplants, and generally showed positive attitudes; only 24% of the subjects indicated their willingness to register as a donor; only 3% stated that they had already registered and had a donor card. The findings suggest that good intentions do not translate into action and that Poland needs to develop a nation-wide, up-to-date, and youth-oriented health education program that builds on favorable attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation.

Concepts: Heart, Organ, Organ transplant, Human body, Organ donation, Human anatomy, Supply and demand, Organs


The delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) with serious multiple organ dysfunction or systemic damages, generally developed 2 hours after jellyfish stings, deserves special attentions for it is very meaningful to the clinical interventions. To set up a DJES model as well as to obtain more details about its process, an integrative approach, including clinical chemistry, pathology and immunohistochemistry, was conducted to simultaneously monitor the effects of tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata on the vital target organs (heart, lung, liver and kidney). Our results showed that the TE from C. capillata could induce diverse toxic effects on these organs, among which the liver and kidney injuries seemed to be more serious than cardiopulmonary injuries and might be the leading causes of death in rats with DJES. In summary, we have established a DJES model with multiple organ dysfunction, which could facilitate the research on its underlying mechanism as well as the development of specific prevention or therapy strategies against jellyfish envenomation. The application of this model suggested that the possible mechanism of DJES might be attributed to the synergy of cytotoxicity, vasoconstriction effect and other specific target organ toxicities of jellyfish venom.

Concepts: Biology, Heart, Liver, Organ, Toxicity, Jellyfish, Organs, Lion's mane jellyfish


The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in slaughter rabbits managed in small scale farms and under industrial farming system. The research material included intestines and livers of rabbits slaughtered between years 2007 and 2011. The rabbit carcasses submitted to parasitological examination had passed the sanitary veterinary inspection as fit for human consumption. The samples were collected in spring and autumn seasons. The studies showed no effect of a rabbit farming system, season of the year, or differences in an invasion type in each year. The parasitological test recognized exclusively mixed infestation diagnosed in 79.56 % of the studied animals. Parasitological evaluation of the rabbit internal organs identified the invasions of coccidia (78.83 %), nematoda (16.42 %), cestoda (0.72 %), and cysticerci Cysticercus pisiformis (4.74 %). Coccidian invasions found in intestines were dominant, and their prevalence reached 56.48 %, while the hepatic coccidian extensity was markedly lower, i.e., 3.34 % of the examined rabbits. Invasions were characterized by low intensity. The studies recognized invasions of nematoda (Obeliscoides cuniculi, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus sp., Strongyloides sp., Passalurus ambiguus, Trichuris leporis), cestoda (Mosgovoyia pectinata), and cysticerci C. pisiformis.

Concepts: Parasites, Liver, Organ, Autumn, Gallbladder, Farm, Organs, Industrial agriculture