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Concept: Organizational studies and human resource management

219

Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women’s experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students (n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women’s belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college-the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women’s success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time.

Concepts: Male, Experiment, Science, Educational psychology, Organizational studies and human resource management, Gender, Female, Youth mentoring

111

There is increasing evidence that science & engineering PhD students lose interest in an academic career over the course of graduate training. It is not clear, however, whether this decline reflects students being discouraged from pursuing an academic career by the challenges of obtaining a faculty job or whether it reflects more fundamental changes in students' career goals for reasons other than the academic labor market. We examine this question using a longitudinal survey that follows a cohort of PhD students from 39 U.S. research universities over the course of graduate training to document changes in career preferences and to explore potential drivers of such changes. We report two main results. First, although the vast majority of students start the PhD interested in an academic research career, over time 55% of all students remain interested while 25% lose interest entirely. In addition, 15% of all students were never interested in an academic career during their PhD program, while 5% become more interested. Thus, the declining interest in an academic career is not a general phenomenon across all PhD students, but rather reflects a divergence between those students who remain highly interested in an academic career and other students who are no longer interested in one. Second, we show that the decline we observe is not driven by expectations of academic job availability, nor by related factors such as postdoctoral requirements or the availability of research funding. Instead, the decline appears partly due to the misalignment between students' changing preferences for specific job attributes on the one hand, and the nature of the academic research career itself on the other. Changes in students' perceptions of their own research ability also play a role, while publications do not. We discuss implications for scientific labor markets, PhD career development programs, and science policy.

Concepts: Research methods, Organizational studies and human resource management, Labour economics, Science, Scientific method, University, Employment, Research

49

The biomedical research enterprise in the US has become unsustainable and urgent action is needed to address a variety of problems, including a lack of innovation, an over-reliance on soft money for faculty salaries, the use of graduate students as a source of cheap labour, and a ‘holding tank’ full of talented postdocs with limited career opportunities.

Concepts: Progressive rock, Organizational studies and human resource management, Richard Wright, The Dark Side of the Moon, David Gilmour, Roger Waters, College, Pink Floyd

28

Frontline managers in health care are the keepers of culture, the gateway to evoking a grass roots intelligence network, and they hold a pivotal role in advancing innovation at the point of care. Their roles are ever expanding and include knowledge and skills in managing the business, leading the people, and advancing their own leadership development. In all 3 areas, the impact of their leadership exponentially increases if they maximize innovative thinking and action. Health care executives need to establish the expectations for an innovative culture and the role of frontline managers. They must model the behaviors they promote and take the time to develop these frontline managers who are the hub for innovative success in the organization. This article offers insights and practical applications while exploring the innovation keystones of the following: creating an organizational culture of innovation, igniting collaboration that fuels diverse thinking and creativity, utilizing meaningful data to drive innovative decisions, and assessing and monitoring the ongoing climate and outcomes of innovation.

Concepts: Invention, Organization, Innovation, Health care, Organizational studies and human resource management, Creativity, Management, Leadership

27

This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author introduces the book Lean In and presents applicable lessons for nursing leadership career development.

Concepts: Organizational studies and human resource management, Lean, Learning, Leadership, Planning, Project management, Plan, Management

7

Nursing practice requires application of knowledge, skills and values in various combinations and has undergone substantial changes the last decades. An increased focus on inter-professional collaboration and possible new and more independent roles for nurses are described. A variety of programs have been developed in order to educate registered nurses (RN) to meet the changes and demands in health and nursing care throughout the world.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Training, Learning, Organizational studies and human resource management, Health care, Skill, Registered nurse, Nursing

5

To achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), more health workers are needed; also critical is supporting optimal performance of existing staff. Integrated human resource management (HRM) strategies, complemented by other health systems strategies, are needed to improve health workforce performance, which is possible at district level in decentralised contexts. To strengthen the capacity of district management teams to develop and implement workplans containing integrated strategies for workforce performance improvement, we introduced an action-research-based management strengthening intervention (MSI). This consisted of two workshops, follow-up by facilitators and meetings between participating districts. Although often used in the health sector, there is little evaluation of this approach in middle-income and low-income country contexts. The MSI was tested in three districts in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. This paper reports on the appropriateness of the MSI to the contexts and its effects.

Concepts: District, Healthcare, East Africa, Human, Organizational studies and human resource management, Universal health care, Human resource management, Management

4

Individuals higher in narcissism have leader emergent tendencies. The characteristics of their personality suggest, however, that their leadership qualities will decrease over time as a function of group acquaintance. We present data from two studies that provide the first empirical support for this theoretical position within a transformational leadership framework.

Concepts: Organizational studies and human resource management, Fiedler contingency model, Management, Social psychology, Kurt Lewin, Leadership

3

Research suggests that interracial mentoring relationships are strained by negative affect and low rapport. As such, it stands to reason that strategies that decrease negative affect and increase rapport should improve these relationships. However, previous research has not tested this possibility. In video-chats (Studies 1 and 2) and face-to-face meetings (Study 3), we manipulated the degree of mutual self-disclosure between mentees and mentors, a strategy that has been shown to reduce negative affect and increase rapport. We then measured negative affect and rapport as mediators, and mentee performance (quality of speech delivered; Studies 1 and 3) and mentor performance (warmth and helpfulness; Studies 2 and 3) as key outcomes. Results revealed that increased self-disclosure decreased negative affect and increased rapport for both mentees and mentors. Among mentees, decreased negative affect predicted better performance (Studies 1 and 3). Among mentors, increased rapport predicted warmer feedback (Studies 2 and 3). These effects remained significant when we meta-analyzed data across studies (Study 4), and also revealed the relationship of rapport to more helpful feedback. Findings suggest that affect and rapport are key features in facilitating positive outcomes in interracial mentoring relationships.

Concepts: Organizational studies and human resource management, Management, Alternative education, Interpersonal relationship, Mentorship, Maybach Foundation, Coaching, Youth mentoring

3

To describe mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement and identify the factors that affect mentoring.

Concepts: Psychology, Mentorship, Organizational studies and human resource management, Linguistics