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Concept: Optometry

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Diseases involving the macula and posterior pole are leading causes of visual impairment and blindness worldwide and may require prompt ophthalmological care. However, access to eye-care and timely patient management may be limited due to inefficient and inappropriate referrals between primary eye-care providers and ophthalmology. Optometrists with a special interest in macular disease may be useful as a community aid to better stratify and recommend best-practice management plans for suitable patients. This study assesses such a notion by appraising the optometric referral patterns of patients with suspected macular disease to an intermediate-tier optometric imaging clinic.

Concepts: Medicine, Visual perception, Ophthalmology, Eye examination, Optometry

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To investigate the choroidal and retinal thickness in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic Chinese children by swept-source longer-wavelength optical coherence tomography.

Concepts: Optics, Lens, Presbyopia, Optometry

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IMPORTANCE Individuals with age-related eye disease (ARED) need to use eye care services for detection, assessment, and care at regular intervals. OBJECTIVE To explore the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and use of eye care services among US adults with self-reported ARED during 2002 and 2008. DESIGN Data were from the National Health Interview Survey 2002 and 2008. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate predictive margins, controlling for other factors, and we used the slope index of inequality to measure the relationship between SEP and use of eye care services across the entire distributions of poverty-income ratio (PIR) and educational attainment. SETTING A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adults, with prevalence estimates weighted to represent the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. PARTICIPANTS The sample included US participants in the 2002 (n = 3586) and the 2008 (n = 3104) National Health Interview Survey who were at least 40 years old and reported any ARED (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, or glaucoma). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Use of eye care services; SEP was measured by the PIR and educational attainment. RESULTS In 2002, persons with ARED and a PIR of less than 1.50 were significantly less likely than those with a PIR of at least 5 to report visiting an eye care provider (62.7% vs 80.1%; P < .001) or undergoing a dilated eye examination in the past 12 months (64.3% vs 80.4%; P < .001), after adjustment for other factors. Similarly, persons with less than a high school education were less likely than those with at least a college education to report a visit to an eye care provider (62.9% vs 80.8%; P < .001) or dilated eye examination (64.8% vs 81.4%; P < .001). In 2002, the slope index of inequality showed statistically significant differences for eye care provider visits across the levels of education (24.4; P = .006), and in 2008, it showed a significant difference for eye care provider visits across the levels of educational attainment (25.2; P = .049) and PIR (21.8; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Significant differences in the use of eye care services by SEP persist among US adults with eye diseases.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Statistics, Statistical significance, Retina, Eye, Ophthalmology, Macular degeneration, Optometry

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Purpose To determine the incidence of ophthalmologic disorders in children with autism and related disorders. Design Retrospective chart review. Four hundred and seven children diagnosed with autism or a related disorder between 1998 and 2006. one hundred and fifty-four of these children completed a comprehensive ophthalmology exam by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Results Ophthalmologic pathology was found in 40% of patients with autism or a related disorder with 29% having significant refractive errors, 21% demonstrating strabismus, and 10% having amblyopia. Conclusions Children with autism or a related disorder will frequently have an ophthalmologic abnormality. Since cooperation with vision screening is understandably limited in these children, a comprehensive eye examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist is recommended for all such children.

Concepts: Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Medical school, Strabismus, Eye examination, Eye surgery, Optometry, Pediatric ophthalmology

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The aim of the study was to determine and compare the relationship between change in simulated keratometry (K) and degree of refractive correction in wavefront-guided (WFG) and wavefront-optimized (WFO) myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

Concepts: Comparison, Ophthalmology, Optometry

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In Canada, government insurance covers eye care services provided by ophthalmologists and other physicians. However, government coverage for services provided by optometrists, non-medical school trained primary eye care providers, varies regionally. Little is known about the impact of a funding model in which ophthalmologist services are government-insured but services provided by optometrists are not, on eye care utilization and eye disease detection and treatment. We aimed to address this question by examining geographic variations in eye care service utilization on Prince Edward Island (PEI).

Concepts: Medicine, Visual perception, Ophthalmology, Canada, Eye examination, Optometry, Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown

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To investigate current diagnostic equipment availability and usage for glaucoma case-finding within community optometric practice, and to explore optometrists' attitudes towards an enhanced scope of clinical practice.

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Optometry

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Retinitis Pigmentosa is an eye disease that presents with a slow loss of vision and then evolves until blindness results. The automatic detection of the early signs of retinitis pigmentosa acts as a great support to ophthalmologists in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease in order to slow down the degenerative process. A large body of literature is devoted to the analysis of Retinitis Pigmentosa. However, all the existing approaches work on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) data, while hardly any attempts have been made working on fundus images. Fundus image analysis is a suitable tool in daily practice for an early detection of retinal diseases and the monitoring of their progression. Moreover, the fundus camera represents a low-cost and easy-access diagnostic system, which can be employed in resource-limited regions and countries. The fundus images of a patient suffering from retinitis pigmentosa are characterized by an attenuation of the vessels, a waxy disc pallor and the presence of pigment deposits. Considering that several methods have been proposed for the analysis of retinal vessels and the optic disk, this work focuses on the automatic segmentation of the pigment deposits in the fundus images. The image distortions are attenuated by applying a local pre-processing. Next, a watershed transformation is carried out to produce homogeneous regions. Working on regions rather than on pixels makes the method very robust to the high variability of pigment deposits in terms of color and shape, so allowing the detection even of small pigment deposits. The regions undergo a feature extraction procedure, so that a region classification process is performed by means of an outlier detection analysis and a rule set. The experiments have been performed on a dataset of images of patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa. Although the images present a high variability in terms of color and illumination, the method provides a good performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the F-measure, whose values are 74.43, 98.44, 97.90, 59.04, respectively.

Concepts: Optics, Retina, Eye, Ophthalmology, Retinitis pigmentosa, Optical coherence tomography, Blindness, Optometry

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Practitioners fitting contact lenses for myopia control frequently question whether a myopic child can achieve good vision with a high-add multifocal. We demonstrate that visual acuity is not different than spectacles with a commercially available, center-distance soft multifocal contact lens (MFCL) (Biofinity Multifocal “D”; +2.50 D add).

Concepts: Visual acuity, Myopia, Lens, Orthokeratology, Contact lens, Corrective lens, Optometry, Glasses

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It is important to monitor the use of optometric services by Veterans and consider the implications for other optometric and vision rehabilitation services. We did not find public health reports documenting the recent utilization of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) optometric eye exam services.

Concepts: Health economics, Monitoring, Visual perception, Ophthalmology, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Optometry