Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Optical cavity


The newly proposed in-plane resonant nano-electro-mechanical (IP R-NEM) sensor, that includes a doubly clamped suspended beam and two side electrodes, achieved a mass sensitivity of less than zepto g/Hz based on analytical and numerical analyses. The high frequency characterization and numerical/analytical studies of the fabricated sensor show that the high vacuum measurement environment will ease the resonance detection using the capacitance detection technique if only the thermoelsatic damping plays a dominant role for the total quality factor of the sensor. The usage of the intrinsic junction-less field-effect-transistor (JL FET) for the resonance detection of the sensor provides a more practical detection method for this sensor. As the second proposed sensor, the introduction of the monolithically integrated in-plane MOSFET with the suspended beam provides another solution for the ease of resonance frequency detection with similar operation to the junction-less transistor in the IP R-NEM sensor. The challenging fabrication technology for the in-plane resonant suspended gate field-effect-transistor (IP RSG-FET) sensor results in some post processing and simulation steps to fully explore and improve the direct current (DC) characteristics of the sensor for the consequent high frequency measurement. The results of modeling and characterization in this research provide a realistic guideline for these potential ultra-sensitive NEM sensors.

Concepts: Transistor, Resonance, Harmonic oscillator, Optical cavity, Electronics terms, Damping, RLC circuit, Q factor


The electronic excitations of three noble-metall chains-copper, silver, and gold-have been investigated at the time-dependent density functional theory level. The reduced single-electron density matrix is propagated according to the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the real-time domain after an impulse excitation. The propagation in the real-time domain enables us to investigate the formation and size evolution of electronic excitations in these metallic chains with different number of atoms, up to a total of 26 atoms. The longitudinal oscillations at lower excitation energies are dominated by s → p transitions in these chains and have collective or central resonances, while the first peak involving d → p transitions in the longitudinal mode appears at a higher excitation energy and shows collective resonances. In the transverse oscillations, there are in most cases d → p transitions in each resonance, which can be attributed to either central or end resonances. Convergence of the oscillations, in particular those involving the collective and central resonances in the three noble-metal chains can only be observed for chains with 18 atoms or more. Different spectroscopic characteristics among these three metallic chains can be attributed to their different electronic structures, in particular the relativistic effects in the gold chains have a dramatic effect on their electronic structures and excitations.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Resonator, Kinetic energy, Uranium, Density functional theory, Normal mode, Standing wave, Optical cavity


High-Q guided resonance modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals, enable high field intensity in small volumes that can be exploited to realize high performance sensors. We show through simulations and experiments how the Q-factor of guided resonance modes varies with the size of the photonic crystal, and that this variation is due to loss caused by scattering of in-plane propagating modes at the lattice boundary and coupling of incident light to fully guided modes that exist in the homogeneous slab outside the lattice boundary. A photonic crystal with reflecting boundaries, realized by Bragg mirrors with a band gap for in-plane propagating modes, has been designed to suppress these edge effects. The new design represents a way around the fundamental limitation on Q-factors for guided resonances in finite photonic crystals. Results are presented for both simulated and fabricated structures.

Concepts: Crystal, Optics, Resonance, Colloidal crystal, Band gap, Photonic crystal, Optical cavity, Q factor


A high-slope-efficiency single-frequency (SF) ytterbium-doped fiber laser, based on a Sagnac loop mirror filter (LMF), was demonstrated. It combined a simple linear cavity with a Sagnac LMF that acted as a narrow-bandwidth filter to select the longitudinal modes. And we introduced a polarization controller to restrain the spatial hole burning effect in the linear cavity. The system could operate at a stable SF oscillating at 1064 nm with the obtained maximum output power of 32 mW. The slope efficiency was found to be primarily dependent on the reflectivity of the fiber Bragg grating. The slope efficiency of multi-longitudinal modes was higher than 45%, and the highest slope efficiency of the single longitudinal mode we achieved was 33.8%. The power stability and spectrum stability were <2% and <0.1%, respectively, and the signal-to-noise ratio measured was around 60 dB.

Concepts: Diffraction, Optical fiber, Laser, Normal mode, Bragg's law, Optical cavity, Analog-to-digital converter, Longitudinal mode


The piezoelectric lateral-electric-field-excited resonator based on an X-cut lithium niobate plate has been investigated. Two rectangular electrodes were applied on one side of the plate so that the lateral electric field components were parallel to the crystallographic Y-axis and excited the longitudinal wave in the gap between the electrodes. The region around the electrodes was covered with a special absorbing varnish to suppress the spurious oscillations. The effect of the absorbing coating width on the resonant frequency and Q-factor of the lateral field-excited resonator was studied in detail with the series and parallel resonances for different width of the gap between the electrodes. As a result, we found experimentally the parameter regions of pure resonances and the boundaries of value variation for resonance frequency, Q-factor, and effective electromechanical coupling coefficient.

Concepts: Resonator, Wave, Resonance, Harmonic oscillator, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave, Optical cavity, Q factor


The amplitude of the photoacoustic effect for an optical source moving at the sound speed in a one-dimensional geometry increases linearly in time without bound in the linear acoustic regime. Here, use of this principle is described for trace detection of gases, using two frequency-shifted beams from a CO2 laser directed at an angle to each other to give optical fringes that move at the sound speed in a cavity with a longitudinal resonance. The photoacoustic signal is detected with a high-[Formula: see text], piezoelectric crystal with a resonance on the order of [Formula: see text] kHz. The photoacoustic cell has a design analogous to a hemispherical laser resonator and can be adjusted to have a longitudinal resonance to match that of the detector crystal. The grating frequency, the length of the resonator, and the crystal must all have matched frequencies; thus, three resonances are used to advantage to produce sensitivity that extends to the parts-per-quadrillion level.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Frequency, Sound, Resonance, Radio, Sonar, Standing wave, Optical cavity


We combine atomic layer lithography and glancing-angle ion polishing to create wafer-scale metamaterials composed of dense arrays of ultrasmall coaxial nanocavities in gold films. This new fabrication scheme makes it possible to shrink the diameter and increase the packing density of 2-nm-gap coaxial resonators - an extreme sub-wavelength structure first manufactured via atomic layer lithography - both by a factor of 100 with respect to previous studies. We demonstrate that the non-propagating 0th-order Fabry-Pérot mode, which possess slow-light-like properties at the cutoff resonance, traps infrared light inside 2-nm gaps (gap volume ~λ(3)/10(6)). Notably, the annular gaps cover only 3% or less of the metal surface, while open-area normalized transmission is as high as 1700% at the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) condition. The resulting energy accumulation alongside extraordinary optical transmission can benefit applications in nonlinear optics, optical trapping, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Furthermore, since the resonance wavelength is independent of the cavity length and dramatically red-shifts as the gap size is reduced, large-area arrays can be constructed with λresonance > period, making this fabrication method ideal for manufacturing resonant metamaterials.

Concepts: Optics, Refractive index, Electromagnetic radiation, Laser, Resonator, Resonance, Standing wave, Optical cavity


Effective manipulation of cavity resonant modes is crucial for emission control in laser physics and applications. Using the concept of parity-time symmetry to exploit the interplay between gain and loss (i.e., light amplification and absorption), we demonstrate a parity-time symmetry-breaking laser with resonant modes that can be controlled at will. In contrast to conventional ring cavity lasers with multiple competing modes, our parity-time microring laser exhibits intrinsic single-mode lasing regardless of the gain spectral bandwidth. Thresholdless parity-time symmetry breaking due to the rotationally symmetric structure leads to stable single-mode operation with the selective whispering-gallery mode order. Exploration of parity-time symmetry in laser physics may open a door to next-generation optoelectronic devices for optical communications and computing.

Concepts: Photon, Light, Optical fiber, Laser, Symmetry, Photonics, Active laser medium, Optical cavity


From April 2013 to July 2014, 25 consecutive men participated in a longitudinal outcomes study following in-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer (PCa). Eligibility criteria were clinical stage T1c and T2a disease; prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng/ml; Gleason score <8; and cancer-suspicious regions (CSRs) on multiparametric MRI harboring PCa. CSRs harboring PCa were ablated using a Visualase cooled laser applicator system. Tissue temperature was monitored throughout the ablation cycle by proton resonance frequency shift magnetic resonance thermometry from phase-sensitive images. There were no significant differences between baseline and 3-mo mean American Urological Association Symptom Score or Sexual Health Inventory in Men scores. No man required pads at any time. Overall, the mean PSA decrease between baseline and 3 mo was 2.3 ng/ml (44.2%). Of 28 sites subjected to target biopsy after FLA, 26 (96%) showed no evidence of PCa. Our study provides encouraging evidence that excellent early oncologic control of significant PCa can be achieved following FLA, with virtually no complications or adverse impact on quality of life. Longer follow-up is required to show that oncologic control is durable.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Prostate cancer, Urology, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Prostate-specific antigen, Optical cavity


(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) yields site-specific signatures that directly report metabolic concentrations, biochemistry and kinetics-provided spectral sensitivity and quality are sufficient. Here, an enabling relaxation-enhanced (RE) MRS approach is demonstrated that by combining highly selective spectral excitations with operation at very high magnetic fields, delivers spectra exhibiting signal-to-noise ratios >50:1 in under 6 s for ~5 × 5 × 5 (mm)(3) voxels, with flat baselines and no interference from water. With this spectral quality, MRS was used to interrogate a number of metabolic properties in stroked rat models. Metabolic confinements imposed by randomly oriented micro-architectures were detected and found to change upon ischaemia; intensities of downfield resonances were found to be selectively altered in stroked hemispheres; and longitudinal relaxation time of lactic acid was found to increase by over 50% its control value as early as 3-h post ischaemia, paralleling the onset of cytotoxic oedema. These results demonstrate potential of (1)H MRS at ultrahigh fields.

Concepts: Acid, Metabolism, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Biochemistry, Lactic acid, In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Optical cavity